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The 1628 Vasa Inquest in Sweden: Learning Contemporary Lessons for Effective Death Investigation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301332
Source
J Law Med. 2018 Dec; 26(2):285-299
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Date
Dec-2018
Author
Ian Freckelton
Author Affiliation
Barrister, Crockett Chambers, Melbourne; Professorial Fellow of Law, University of Melbourne; Adjunct Professor of Forensic Medicine, Monash University.
Source
J Law Med. 2018 Dec; 26(2):285-299
Date
Dec-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Keywords
Cause of Death
Coroners and Medical Examiners - history
Death
History, 17th Century
Humans
Ships - history
Sweden
Abstract
Much that is constructive can be achieved from analysis of death investigations that have failed to achieve desirable outcomes in terms of learning lessons about risks to health and safety and in terms of gaining an understanding as to how further tragedies can be avoided. This article reviews an "inquest" into the sinking in 1628 of the pride of the Swedish Navy, the Vasa, and the factors that led to the inquest failing to come to grips with the various design, building, oversight, subcontracting, communication, and co-ordination flaws that contributed to the vessel being foreseeably unstable and thus unseaworthy. It argues that Reason's Swiss cheese analysis of systemic contributions to risk and modern principles of Anglo-Australasian-Canadian death investigation shed light on how a better investigation of the tragedy that cost 30 lives and a disastrous loss of a vessel of unparalleled cost to the Kingdom of Sweden could have led to more useful insights into the multifactorial causes of the sinking of the Vasa than were yielded by the inquest.
PubMed ID
30574717 View in PubMed
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An online platform for rapid oil outflow assessment from grounded tankers for pollution response.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296513
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2018 Oct; 135:963-976
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Oct-2018
Author
Kristjan Tabri
Martin Heinvee
Janek Laanearu
Monika Kollo
Floris Goerlandt
Author Affiliation
Tallinn University of Technology, School of Engineering, Tallinn, Estonia. Electronic address: kristjan.tabri@ttu.ee.
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2018 Oct; 135:963-976
Date
Oct-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Accidents
Finland
Models, Theoretical
Petroleum Pollution
Ships
Software
Abstract
The risk of oil spills is an ongoing societal concern. Whereas several decision support systems exist for predicting the fate and drift of spilled oil, there is a lack of accurate models for assessing the amount of oil spilled and its temporal evolution. In order to close this gap, this paper presents an online platform for the fast assessment of tanker grounding accidents in terms of structural damage and time-dependent amount of spilled cargo oil. The simulation platform consists of the definition of accidental scenarios; the assessment of the grounding damage and the prediction of the time-dependent oil spill size. The performance of this integrated online simulation environment is exemplified through illustrative case studies representing two plausible accidental grounding scenarios in the Gulf of Finland: one resulting in oil spill of about 50?t, while in the other the inner hull remained intact and no spill occurred.
PubMed ID
30301122 View in PubMed
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Assessing vessel slowdown for reducing auditory masking for marine mammals and fish of the western Canadian Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296514
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2018 Oct; 135:290-302
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Oct-2018
Author
Matthew K Pine
David E Hannay
Stephen J Insley
William D Halliday
Francis Juanes
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada; Wildlife Conservation Society Canada, Whitehorse, Yukon, Canada. Electronic address: mattpine@uvic.ca.
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2018 Oct; 135:290-302
Date
Oct-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Canada
Ecosystem
Fishes - physiology
Mammals - physiology
Noise
Ships
Abstract
Vessel slowdown may be an alternative mitigation option in regions where re-routing shipping corridors to avoid important marine mammal habitat is not possible. We investigated the potential relief in masking in marine mammals and fish from a 10 knot speed reduction of container and cruise ships. The mitigation effect from slower vessels was not equal between ambient sound conditions, species or vessel-type. Under quiet ambient conditions, a speed reduction from 25 to 15 knots resulted in smaller listening space reductions by 16-23%, 10-18%, 1-2%, 5-8% and 8% respectively for belugas, bowheads, bearded seals, ringed seals, and fish, depending on vessel-type. However, under noisy conditions, those savings were between 9 and 19% more, depending on the species. This was due to the differences in species' hearing sensitivities and the low ambient sound levels measured in the study region. Vessel slowdown could be an effective mitigation strategy for reducing masking.
PubMed ID
30301040 View in PubMed
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Basin-wide contributions to the underwater soundscape by multiple seismic surveys with implications for marine mammals in Baffin Bay, Greenland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298862
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2019 Jan; 138:474-490
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jan-2019
Author
L A Kyhn
D M Wisniewska
K Beedholm
J Tougaard
M Simon
A Mosbech
P T Madsen
Author Affiliation
Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Center, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark. Electronic address: lky@bios.au.dk.
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2019 Jan; 138:474-490
Date
Jan-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Bays
Greenland
Mammals
Noise
Ships
Abstract
Seismic surveys increasingly operate in deeper Arctic waters with propagation conditions and marine mammal fauna different from the better-studied temperate, or shallow-water, regions. Using 31 calibrated sound recorders, we quantified noise contributions from four concurrent seismic surveys in Baffin Bay, Greenland, to estimate their potential impacts on marine mammals. The impact was cumulative as the noise level rose in response to the onset of each survey: on a minute-by-minute scale the sound-exposure-levels varied by up to 70?dB (20?dB on average), depending on range to the seismic vessel, local bathymetry effects and interference patterns, representing a significant change in the auditory scene for marine mammals. Airgun pulse energy did not decrease to ambient before arrival of the next pulse leaving very little low-frequency masking-free time. Overall, the measured values matched well with pre-season-modeling, emphasizing the importance of noise-modeling in impact assessments, if responses of focal marine mammals are known.
PubMed ID
30660297 View in PubMed
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Boat builders' occupational contact dermatitis - 11-year data from the Finnish register of occupational diseases.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295403
Source
Contact Dermatitis. 2018 May; 78(5):370-371
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
May-2018
Author
Kristiina Aalto-Korte
Kirsi Koskela
Maria Pesonen
Author Affiliation
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Occupational Medicine, 00032 Työterveyslaitos, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Contact Dermatitis. 2018 May; 78(5):370-371
Date
May-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Construction Industry
Dermatitis, Allergic Contact - epidemiology - etiology
Dermatitis, Irritant - epidemiology - etiology
Dermatitis, Occupational - epidemiology - etiology
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Registries
Ships
PubMed ID
29383726 View in PubMed
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Construction of a web-based questionnaire for longitudinal investigation of work exposure, musculoskeletal pain and performance impairments in high-performance marine craft populations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291592
Source
BMJ Open. 2017 Jul 20; 7(7):e016006
Publication Type
Journal Article
Validation Studies
Date
Jul-20-2017
Author
Riccardo Lo Martire
Manudul Pahansen de Alwis
Björn Olov Äng
Karl Garme
Author Affiliation
Centre for Naval Architecture, Department of Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
BMJ Open. 2017 Jul 20; 7(7):e016006
Date
Jul-20-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Validation Studies
Keywords
Adult
Fatigue - etiology - physiopathology
Female
Humans
Internet
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Musculoskeletal Pain - etiology - physiopathology
Occupational Diseases - physiopathology
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Reproducibility of Results
Ships
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden
Work Performance
Abstract
High-performance marine craft personnel (HPMCP) are regularly exposed to vibration and repeated shock (VRS) levels exceeding maximum limitations stated by international legislation. Whereas such exposure reportedly is detrimental to health and performance, the epidemiological data necessary to link these adverse effects causally to VRS are not available in the scientific literature, and no suitable tools for acquiring such data exist. This study therefore constructed a questionnaire for longitudinal investigations in HPMCP.
A consensus panel defined content domains, identified relevant items and outlined a questionnaire. The relevance and simplicity of the questionnaire's content were then systematically assessed by expert raters in three consecutive stages, each followed by revisions. An item-level content validity index (I-CVI) was computed as the proportion of experts rating an item as relevant and simple, and a scale-level content validity index (S-CVI/Ave) as the average I-CVI across items. The thresholds for acceptable content validity were 0.78 and 0.90, respectively. Finally, a dynamic web version of the questionnaire was constructed and pilot tested over a 1-month period during a marine exercise in a study population sample of eight subjects, while accelerometers simultaneously quantified VRS exposure.
Content domains were defined as work exposure, musculoskeletal pain and human performance, and items were selected to reflect these constructs. Ratings from nine experts yielded S-CVI/Ave of 0.97 and 1.00 for relevance and simplicity, respectively, and the pilot test suggested that responses were sensitive to change in acceleration and that the questionnaire, following some adjustments, was feasible for its intended purpose.
A dynamic web-based questionnaire for longitudinal survey of key variables in HPMCP was constructed. Expert ratings supported that the questionnaire content is relevant, simple and sufficiently comprehensive, and the pilot test suggested that the questionnaire is feasible for longitudinal measurements in the study population.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28729320 View in PubMed
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Effects of shipping on marine acoustic habitats in Canadian Arctic estimated via probabilistic modeling and mapping.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294329
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2017 Dec 15; 125(1-2):115-131
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Dec-15-2017
Author
Florian Aulanier
Yvan Simard
Nathalie Roy
Cédric Gervaise
Marion Bandet
Author Affiliation
Fisheries and Oceans Canada Chair in underwater acoustics applied to ecosystem and marine mammals, Marine Sciences Institute, University of Québec at Rimouski, Rimouski, Qc, Canada; Maurice Lamontagne Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Mont-Joli, Qc, Canada. Electronic address: Florian.Aulanier@uqar.ca.
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2017 Dec 15; 125(1-2):115-131
Date
Dec-15-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Canada
Ecosystem
Environment
Mammals
Models, Statistical
Noise
Ships
Abstract
Canadian Arctic and Subarctic regions experience a rapid decrease of sea ice accompanied with increasing shipping traffic. The resulting time-space changes in shipping noise are studied for four key regions of this pristine environment, for 2013 traffic conditions and a hypothetical tenfold traffic increase. A probabilistic modeling and mapping framework, called Ramdam, which integrates the intrinsic variability and uncertainties of shipping noise and its effects on marine habitats, is developed and applied. A substantial transformation of soundscapes is observed in areas where shipping noise changes from present occasional-transient contributor to a dominant noise source. Examination of impacts on low-frequency mammals within ecologically and biologically significant areas reveals that shipping noise has the potential to trigger behavioral responses and masking in the future, although no risk of temporary or permanent hearing threshold shifts is noted. Such probabilistic modeling and mapping is strategic in marine spatial planning of this emerging noise issues.
PubMed ID
28863978 View in PubMed
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Evaluation of thermal optical analysis method of elemental carbon for marine fuel exhaust.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291895
Source
J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2017 Dec; 67(12):1298-1318
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Dec-2017
Author
Maija K Lappi
Jyrki M Ristimäki
Author Affiliation
a VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland , Espoo , Finland.
Source
J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2017 Dec; 67(12):1298-1318
Date
Dec-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis - chemistry
Carbon - analysis - chemistry
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Global warming
Particulate Matter - analysis
Reproducibility of Results
Ships
Soot - analysis - chemistry
Sulfur
Vehicle Emissions - analysis
Abstract
The awareness of black carbon (BC) as the second largest anthropogenic contributor in global warming and an ice melting enhancer has increased. Due to prospected increase in shipping especially in the Arctic reliability of BC emissions and their invented amounts from ships is gaining more attention. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) is actively working toward estimation of quantities and effects of BC especially in the Arctic. IMO has launched work toward constituting a definition for BC and agreeing appropriate methods for its determination from shipping emission sources. In our study we evaluated the suitability of elemental carbon (EC) analysis by a thermal-optical transmittance (TOT) method to marine exhausts and possible measures to overcome the analysis interferences related to the chemically complex emissions. The measures included drying with CaSO4, evaporation at 40-180ºC, H2O treatment, and variation of the sampling method (in-stack and diluted) and its parameters (e.g., dilution ratio, Dr). A reevaluation of the nominal organic carbon (OC)/EC split point was made. Measurement of residual carbon after solvent extraction (TC-CSOF) was used as a reference, and later also filter smoke number (FSN) measurement, which is dealt with in a forthcoming paper by the authors. Exhaust sources used for collecting the particle sample were mainly four-stroke marine engines operated with variable loads and marine fuels ranging from light to heavy fuel oils (LFO and HFO) with a sulfur content range of
PubMed ID
28548907 View in PubMed
Less detail

Help we are sinking! Stories from Norwegian dispatch centers on decision-making in unfamiliar and ambiguous situations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296829
Source
J Emerg Manag. 2018 Jul/Aug; 16(4):245-254
Publication Type
Journal Article
Author
Leif Inge Magnussen
Eric Carlstrøm
Ann-Kristin Berge
Frode Wegger
Jarle Løwe Sørensen
Author Affiliation
Associate Professor, Department of Business, History and Social Sciences, School of Business, University of Southeastern Norway, Horten, Norway.
Source
J Emerg Manag. 2018 Jul/Aug; 16(4):245-254
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Decision Making
Emergency Medical Dispatcher
Emergency Medical Service Communication Systems
Emergency Responders
Focus Groups
Humans
Norway
Ships
Abstract
The aim of this exploratory case study was to examine whether sensemaking processes may influence decision-making of emergency call center dispatchers when dealing with maritime crises. This article focuses on sensemaking and decision-making in an emergency services context using Norwegian operators as a case and reports on data collected from five focus-group interviews with emergency dispatchers at five different locations. Each focus group consisted of three dispatchers, representing the three main Norwegian emergency response dispatch centers: police, fire and rescue, and the Emergency Medical Communication Centre (AMK). The study's purpose was to see whether choices made when responding to maritime crisis calls are influenced by sensemaking processes, and whether these processes may have influenced the dispatcher's choice of which search and rescue resources to contact. The study found that the sensemaking processes that occurred prior to the decision-making might have been influenced by the dispatcher's past experiences, in particular, experiences from land-based operations. The findings also suggested that the emergency dispatchers made decisions based on intuitive sensemaking, as they were perceived pressed on time and experienced maritime crisis in a more transboundary nature than everyday land-based emergencies. The effects of sensemaking processes and intuitive decision-making shown in this study are of possible relevance to emergency services educators and managers outside a Norwegian framework.
PubMed ID
30234910 View in PubMed
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Inactivation of marine heterotrophic bacteria in ballast water by an Electrochemical Advanced Oxidation Process.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295383
Source
Water Res. 2018 09 01; 140:377-386
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
09-01-2018
Author
Javier Moreno-Andrés
Noëmi Ambauen
Olav Vadstein
Cynthia Hallé
Asunción Acevedo-Merino
Enrique Nebot
Thomas Meyn
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Technologies, INMAR-Marine Research Institute, University of Cádiz, Campus Universitario Puerto Real, 11510, Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain. Electronic address: javier.moreno@uca.es.
Source
Water Res. 2018 09 01; 140:377-386
Date
09-01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Bacteria
Boron
Chlorine - pharmacology
Diamond
Disinfection - instrumentation - methods
Electrochemical Techniques - instrumentation - methods
Electrodes
Heterotrophic Processes
Kinetics
Norway
Oxidants - chemistry
Oxidation-Reduction
Seawater - microbiology
Ships
Water Microbiology
Water Purification - methods
Abstract
Seawater treatment is increasingly required due to industrial activities that use substantial volumes of seawater in their processes. The shipping industry and the associated management of a ship's ballast water are currently considered a global challenge for the seas. Related to that, the suitability of an Electrochemical Advanced Oxidation Process (EAOP) with Boron Doped Diamond (BDD) electrodes has been assessed on a laboratory scale for the disinfection of seawater. This technology can produce both reactive oxygen species and chlorine species (especially in seawater) that are responsible for inactivation. The EAOP was applied in a continuous-flow regime with real seawater. Natural marine heterotrophic bacteria (MHB) were used as an indicator of disinfection efficiency. A biphasic inactivation kinetic model was fitted on experimental points, achieving 4-Log reductions at 0.019?Ah?L-1. By assessing regrowth after treatment, results suggest that higher bacterial damages result from the EAOP when it is compared to chlorination. Furthermore, several issues lacking fundamental understanding were investigated such as recolonization capacity or bacterial community dynamics. It was concluded that, despite disinfection processes being effective, there is not only a possibility for regrowth after treatment but also a change on bacterial population diversity produced by the treatment. Finally, energy consumption was estimated and indicated that 0.264?kWh·m-3 are needed for 4.8-Log reductions of MHB; otherwise, with 0.035?kWh·m-3, less disinfection efficiency can be obtained (2.2-Log red). However, with a residual oxidant in the solution, total inactivation can be achieved in three days.
PubMed ID
29753242 View in PubMed
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23 records – page 1 of 3.