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Biofouling of leisure boats as a source of metal pollution.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature281338
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017 Jan;24(1):997-1006
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2017
Author
Maria Alexandra Bighiu
Ann-Kristin Eriksson-Wiklund
Britta Eklund
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017 Jan;24(1):997-1006
Date
Jan-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biofouling - prevention & control
Copper - analysis
Disinfectants - chemistry
Leisure Activities
Metals, Heavy - analysis
Paint - analysis
Salinity
Ships - standards
Sweden
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Zinc - analysis
Abstract
The release of harmful metals from antifouling paints to water bodies is a well-known problem. In this study, we measured both the amount of biofouling growth on leisure boats during one season as well as the concentration of metals accumulated by the biofouling matrix. Furthermore, the efficiency of antifouling paints and mechanical boat cleaning as well as the effect of hull colour on biofouling were evaluated. Unlike paint residues, biofouling waste has never been regarded as a source of metal contamination and has previously been neglected in the scientific literature. Our results revealed that the biofouling waste contained very high concentrations of metals, up to 28,000 mg copper/kg dw and 171,000 mg zinc/kg dw, which exceeds the guidance values for least sensitive land use in Sweden by factors of 140 and 340, respectively. This observation is important because the contaminated biofouling waste is commonly disposed of in boatyard soils at the end of each season, thus increasing the levels of metal pollution. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the amount of biofouling if the boats were coated with copper or zinc containing paints or no paint at all, indicating that biocide paints might not be necessary in low-salinity areas such as the Stockholm archipelago. For boats that were not painted at all during the season, those washed on boat washers (mechanically) had on average half of the amount of biofouling compared to boats that were not cleaned mechanically. The results of the study indicate the importance of proper management of biofouling waste as well as the use of more environmentally friendly removal methods for biofouling such as boat washers.
Notes
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Cites: Biofouling. 2006;22(5-6):425-917178575
PubMed ID
27766522 View in PubMed
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Metal contamination at recreational boatyards linked to the use of antifouling paints-investigation of soil and sediment with a field portable XRF.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature281219
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016 May;23(10):10146-57
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2016
Author
Maria Lagerström
Matz Norling
Britta Eklund
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016 May;23(10):10146-57
Date
May-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Environmental Monitoring - instrumentation
Environmental pollution - analysis
Geologic Sediments - chemistry
Metals - analysis
Paint
Recreation
Ships
Soil - chemistry
Sweden
X-rays
Abstract
The application of a field portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (FPXRF) to measure Cu, Zn, and Pb in soil and sediments at recreational boatyards by Lake Mälaren in Sweden was investigated. Confirmatory chemical analysis on freeze-dried samples shows that, ex situ, the FPXRF produces definitive level data for Cu and Zn and quantitative screening data for Pb, according to USEPA criteria for data quality. Good agreement was also found between the ex situ measurements and the in situ screening. At each of the two studied boatyards, >40 in situ soil measurements were carried out. Statistical differences in soil concentration based on land use were consequently found: the areas used for boat storage and maintenance were significantly higher in Cu and Zn than the areas used for car parking and transportation. The metal pollution in the boat storage areas is therefore shown to be directly linked to hull maintenance activities during which metal-containing antifouling paint particles are shed, end up on the ground, and consequently pollute the soil. In the boat storage areas, the Cu and Zn concentrations often exceeded the national guideline values for soil. In this study, they were also shown to increase with increasing age of the boatyard operation. Pb soil concentrations were only elevated at a few measurement points, reflecting the phasing out of Pb compounds from antifouling products over the past 2 decades. In the surface sediments, concentrations of Cu and Zn were 2-3 times higher compared to deeper levels. No decrease in metal concentration with time was found in the sediments, indicating that boat owners are not complying with the ban of biocide-containing paints in freshwater introduced over 20 years ago.
Notes
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Cites: J Hazard Mater. 2001 May 7;83(1-2):93-12211267748
PubMed ID
26873824 View in PubMed
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"My husband usually makes those decisions": gender, behavior, and attitudes toward the marine environment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134882
Source
Environ Manage. 2011 Jul;48(1):70-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2011
Author
Misse Wester
Britta Eklund
Author Affiliation
Division of Philosophy, The Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 78B, 100 44, Stockholm, Sweden. misse.wester@abe.kth.se
Source
Environ Manage. 2011 Jul;48(1):70-80
Date
Jul-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Choice Behavior
Environment
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Men - psychology
Oceans and Seas
Recreation - psychology
Scandinavia
Sewage - statistics & numerical data
Sex Factors
Ships - statistics & numerical data
Social Responsibility
Water Pollution - prevention & control
Women - psychology
Abstract
Human behavior impacts the environment we live in. In order to better understand how one group, boat owners, in three Nordic countries adjacent to the Baltic Sea; Sweden, Finland and Denmark, viewed the relationship between the marine environment, leisure boats and issues of responsibility, a survey study was conducted (n = 1701). The results show that there are differences between gender in many areas and those women in general are more environmentally friendly than men in their views and behavior. Men and women seek information about boating by different channels and this knowledge may be used in future information campaigns. Both men and women ranked boat owners as having the lowest impact on the marine environment and perceived these to be responsible for addressing environmental issues caused by leisure boat activities. The results also show that it is important to prove the effectiveness of an environmentally safe product since this factor is ranked higher than price when considering buying a product. The results suggest that once environmentally friendly behavior is established, such as recycling, this behavior continues. One implication of this study is that small changes in human behavior are seen as acceptable but larger commitments are more difficult to achieve. If individuals do not feel responsible for causing environmental damage, this aspect needs to be addressed in information aimed at this group. Novel approaches on framing the information and new ways of disseminating information are needed.
PubMed ID
21533762 View in PubMed
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Persistence of TBT and copper in excess on leisure boat hulls around the Baltic Sea.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296895
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 May; 25(15):14595-14605
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
May-2018
Author
Britta Eklund
Burkard Watermann
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, ACES, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden. britta.eklund@aces.su.se.
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 May; 25(15):14595-14605
Date
May-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Copper - analysis
Denmark
Environmental monitoring
Finland
Germany
Leisure Activities
Metals - analysis
Organotin Compounds - analysis
Paint
Ships
Sweden
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
A handheld XRF-analyzer specially calibrated for measurements of metals on plastic boat hulls has been used on leisure boats in Denmark (DK), Finland (FI), and Germany (DE). The results on tin and copper are presented as µg metal/cm2. Tin is a proxy for the occurrence of organotin compounds on the boat. Two or three sites were visited in each country and between 25 and 90 boats were measured at each site. Every boat was measured at six to eight places, and the results are presented both as mean and median values. Linear regression of mean to median values of the 377 data pairs shows high relationship with R2?=?0.9566 for tin and R2 of 0.9724 for copper and thus both ways of calculation may be used. However, for regulative use, it is suggested that all individual measurements on each boat should be presented and used for decisions of removal or sealing of boat hulls. The results are compared with published data from different parts of Sweden, i.e., boats in fresh water, brackish water, and salt water. The results show that tin with mean values >?50 µg Sn/cm2 is still found on 42, 24, and 23% of the boats in DK, FI, and DE, respectively. The corresponding percentages based on median values are 38, 22, and 18% for DK, FI, and DE, respectively. The variation among boats is high with a maximum mean value of 2000 µg Sn/cm2. As comparison, one layer of an old TBT antifouling paint Hempels Hard racing superior, corresponds to 300 µg Sn/cm2. The percentage of boats with tin >?400 µg Sn/cm2 content based on mean values was 10% in DK, 5% in FI, and 1% in DE. The corresponding median values were 9, 6, and 1% for DK, FI, and DE. Copper, >?100 µg Cu/cm2, was detected on all measured boats in DK and in DE and on all but 3% of the FI boats. One layer of Hempels MilleXtra corresponds to ? 4000 µg Cu/cm2. The recommendation on the can is to apply two layers. The proportion of boats with higher mean copper values than 8000 µg Cu/cm2 was 51, 56, and 61 for boats in DK, FI, and DE, respectively. The proportion based on median values >?8000 µg Cu/cm2 was 50, 54, and 61% for DK, FI, and DE. The conclusion is that many leisure boats around the Baltic Sea still display or possess antifouling paints containing organotin compounds and that more than half of the boats have more copper than needed for one boat season according to the paint producers. Much of these known toxic compounds will probably be released into the environment and harm the biota. The calibrated XRF-method, intended for area measurements on boat hulls, is an easy and cheap way to detect boats with organotin compounds and high copper content. We recommend environmental authorities to use this method for identification of such boats and to use the results for requesting measures to minimize further leakage to the environment.
PubMed ID
29532372 View in PubMed
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Pleasure boatyard soils are often highly contaminated.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258307
Source
Environ Manage. 2014 May;53(5):930-46
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2014
Author
Britta Eklund
David Eklund
Author Affiliation
Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden, britta.eklund@itm.su.se.
Source
Environ Manage. 2014 May;53(5):930-46
Date
May-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Environmental Monitoring - methods - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Metals, Heavy - analysis
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic - analysis
Recreation
Ships
Soil - chemistry
Soil Pollutants - analysis
Sweden
Trialkyltin Compounds - analysis
Abstract
The contamination in pleasure boatyards has been investigated. Measured concentrations of copper, zinc, lead, mercury, cadmium, tributyltin (TBT), the 16 most common polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (?16 PAHs), and the seven most common polychlorinated biphenyls (?7 PCBs) from investigations at 34 boatyards along the Swedish coast have been compiled. The maximum concentrations were 7,700 for Cu, 10,200, for Zn, 40,100 for Pb, 188 for Hg, 18 for Cd, 107 for TBT, 630 for carcinogenic PAHs, 1,480 for ?16 PAHs, and 3.8 mg/kg DW for ?7 PCB; all 10-2,000 higher than the Swedish environmental qualitative guidelines. In addition, the mean of the median values found at the 34 places shows that the lower guidance value for sensitive use of land was exceeded for the ?7 PCBs, carcinogenic PAHs, TBT, Pb, Hg, and Cu by a factor of 380, 6.8, 3.6, 2.9, 2.2 and 1.7, respectively. The even higher guideline value for industrial use was exceeded for the ?7 PCBs and TBT by a factor of 15 and 1.8, respectively. TBT, PAHs, Pb, Cd, and Hg are prioritized substances in the European Water Framework Directive and should be phased out as quickly as possible. Because of the risk of leakage from boatyards, precautions should be taken. The high concentrations measured are considered to be dangerous for the environment and human health and highlight the urgent need for developing and enforcing pleasure boat maintenance guidelines to minimize further soil and nearby water contamination.
Notes
Cites: Talanta. 2010 Jun 30;82(1):9-2420685429
Cites: Mar Pollut Bull. 2010 Feb;60(2):159-7120060546
Cites: Biofouling. 2010 Jan;26(1):73-8820390558
Cites: Mar Pollut Bull. 2011 Mar;62(3):453-6521324495
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Cites: Environ Pollut. 2009 May;157(5):1526-3219231052
Cites: Mar Pollut Bull. 2009 Apr;58(4):559-6419100584
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Cites: Environ Pollut. 2010 Mar;158(3):681-719913342
Cites: Sci Total Environ. 2010 May 15;408(12):2459-6620347476
PubMed ID
24563015 View in PubMed
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Pollutant Concentrations and Toxic Effects on the Red Alga Ceramium tenuicorne of Sediments from Natural Harbors and Small Boat Harbors on the West Coast of Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature277646
Source
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2016 Apr;70(3):583-94
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2016
Author
Britta Eklund
Tomas Hansson
Henrik Bengtsson
Ann-Kristin Eriksson Wiklund
Source
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2016 Apr;70(3):583-94
Date
Apr-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Copper - analysis - toxicity
Environmental monitoring
Geologic Sediments - chemistry
Organotin Compounds - analysis - toxicity
Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic - analysis - toxicity
Rhodophyta - drug effects
Seawater
Ships
Sweden
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis - toxicity
Abstract
This investigation set out to analyze the toxicity of surface sediments in a number of natural harbors and small boat harbors on the west coast of Sweden. This was done with the growth inhibition method with Ceramium tenuicorne. Also, concentrations of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), irgarol, organotin compounds, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the sediments were analyzed. The small boat harbors were heavily polluted by Cu, Zn, butyltins, and PAHs, and to a lesser extent by Pb. The Cu, Pb, Zn, and butyltins probably originated from their past and/or present use in antifouling paints, whereas the PAHs probably had multiple sources, including boat motor exhausts. The measured toxicity of the sediment was generally related to their Cu, Zn, and butyltin content, although other toxic substances than those analyzed here probably contributed to the toxicity in some of the harbors. The natural harbor sediments contained less pollutants and were less toxic than the small boat harbor sediments. Nevertheless, our data indicate that the boating pressure today may be high enough to produce toxic effects even in natural harbors in pristine areas. The strongest relationship between toxicity and the major pollutants was obtained when the sediment toxicity was expressed as gram wet weight per liter compared with gram dry weight per liter and gram total organic carbon per liter. Hence, for pollutants that can be elutriated with natural sea water, sediment toxicity expressed as gram wet weight per liter appears preferable.
PubMed ID
26833201 View in PubMed
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Total tin and organotin speciation in historic layers of antifouling paint on leisure boat hulls.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature281690
Source
Environ Pollut. 2017 Jan;220(Pt B):1333-1341
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2017
Author
Maria Lagerström
Jakob Strand
Britta Eklund
Erik Ytreberg
Source
Environ Pollut. 2017 Jan;220(Pt B):1333-1341
Date
Jan-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biofouling - prevention & control
Finland
Organotin Compounds - analysis - chemistry
Paint - analysis
Ships
Tin - analysis - chemistry
Trialkyltin Compounds - analysis - chemistry
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis - chemistry
Abstract
Despite their ban on small vessels in 1989 in the EU, organotin compounds (OTCs) are still being released into the environment due to their presence in historic paint layers on leisure boats. 23 paint samples scraped from recreational boats from three countries around the Baltic Sea were analyzed for total tin (Sn) and OTCs. Two antifouling paint products were also subjected to the same analyses. A new method for the detection of Sn in paint flake samples was developed and found to yield more accurate results compared to four different acid digestion methods. A new method was also developed for the extraction of OTCs from ground paint flakes. This endeavor revealed that existing methods for organotin analysis of sediment may not have full recoveries of OTCs if paint flakes are present in the sample. The hull paint samples had Sn concentrations ranging from 25 to 18,000 mg/kg paint and results showed that tributyltin (TBT) was detected in all samples with concentrations as high as 4.7 g (as Sn)/kg paint. TBT was however not always the major OTC. Triphenyltin (TPhT) was abundant in many samples, especially in those originating from Finland. Several other compounds such as monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), tetrabutyltin (TeBT), monophenyltin (MPhT) and diphenyltin (DPhT) were also detected. These could be the result of degradation occurring on the hull or of impurities in the paint products as they were also identified in the two analyzed paint products. A linear correlation (r(2) = 0.934) was found between the total tin content and the sum of all detected OTCs. The detection of tin can therefore be used to indicate the presence of OTCs on leisure boats.
PubMed ID
27836476 View in PubMed
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XRF measurements of tin, copper and zinc in antifouling paints coated on leisure boats.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature279131
Source
Environ Pollut. 2016 Jun;213:594-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2016
Author
Erik Ytreberg
Maria Alexandra Bighiu
Lennart Lundgren
Britta Eklund
Source
Environ Pollut. 2016 Jun;213:594-9
Date
Jun-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biofouling - prevention & control
Copper - analysis
Environmental monitoring
North Sea
Paint - analysis
Ships
Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission
Sweden
Tin - analysis
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Zinc - analysis
Abstract
Tributyltin (TBT) and other organotin compounds have been restricted for use on leisure boats since 1989 in the EU. Nonetheless, release of TBT is observed from leisure boats during hull maintenance work, such as pressure hosing. In this work, we used a handheld X-ray Fluorescence analyser (XRF) calibrated for antifouling paint matrixes to measure tin, copper and zinc in antifouling paints coated on leisure boats in Sweden. Our results show that over 10% of the leisure boats (n = 686) contain >400 µg/cm(2) of tin in their antifouling coatings. For comparison, one layer (40 µm dry film) of a TBT-paint equals ˜ 800 µg Sn/cm(2). To our knowledge, tin has never been used in other forms than organotin (OT) in antifouling paints. Thus, even though the XRF analysis does not provide any information on the speciation of tin, the high concentrations indicate that these leisure boats still have OT coatings present on their hull. On several leisure boats we performed additional XRF measurements by progressively scraping off the top coatings and analysing each underlying layer. The XRF data show that when tin is detected, it is most likely present in coatings close to the hull with several layers of other coatings on top. Thus, leaching of OT compounds from the hull into the water is presumed to be negligible. The risk for environmental impacts arises during maintenance work such as scraping, blasting and high pressure hosing activities. The data also show that many boat owners apply excessive paint layers when following paint manufacturers recommendations. Moreover, high loads of copper were detected even on boats sailing in freshwater, despite the more than 20 year old ban, which poses an environmental risk that has not been addressed until now.
PubMed ID
27016611 View in PubMed
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8 records – page 1 of 1.