Little attention was paid to lead poisoning in Norway before 1930. In 1931-33, however, Dr Harald Engelsen, a naval surgeon, reported to the National Insurance Administration more than 40 cases among shipyard workers. The first worker in which he diagnosed lead poisoning had consulted other doctors, but only got a symptomatic diagnosis. Dr Engelsen was then consulted by several others with similar symptoms. At the outset his diagnosis was doubted and a considerable disagreement ensued with colleagues and yard representatives; he was compared with Dr Stockmann in Henrik Ibsen's play An Enemy of the People. The controversy escalated. A commission appointed by the government to examine the matter concluded that there had been cases of lead poisoning in the shipyard, that mandatory requirements had not been strictly complied with, and that monitoring of working conditions had been fragmentary. Most of the workers were granted compensation and pensions. For a publication on lead poisoning, Dr Engelsen was awarded the University of Oslo's gold medal, and for his work for improving seamen's health and welfare he was awarded the St. Olav Order. In 1938 he was appointed head of medical services in the Royal Norwegian Navy.
The suitability of determining aluminum in serum or urine as a form of biological monitoring was critically assessed.
Airborne and internal aluminum exposure was assessed for 12 aluminum welders in a shipyard and 5 manufacturers of aluminum sulfate. Particles were characterized with X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Aluminum in air and biological samples was analyzed using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Basic toxicokinetic features were inferred from the data.
The mean 8-hour time-weighted average concentration of aluminum was 1.1 (range 0.008-6.1) mg/m(3) for the shipyard and 0.13 (range 0.02-0.5) mg/m(3) for the aluminum sulfate plant. Welding fume contained aluminum oxide particles
The aim was to describe the personal exposure to benzene on a typical crude oil production vessel and to identify factors influencing the exposure level.
The study population included process operators, deck workers, mechanics and contractors on a production vessel in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. The personal exposure to benzene during ordinary activity, during a short shutdown and during tank work was monitored using organic vapour passive dosimeter badges (3M 3500). Information on the tasks performed on the day of sampling was recorded. Exposure was assessed by grouping the measurements according to job category, mode of operation and the tasks performed on the sampling day. Univariate analysis of variance was used to test the differences between the groups.
Forty-two workers participated in the exposure assessment, comprising a total of 139 measurements. The arithmetic and geometric mean of benzene exposure for all measurements was 0.43 and 0.02 p.p.m., respectively. Twenty-five measurements (18%) were below the limit of detection (0.001 p.p.m.), while ten samples (7%) exceeded the occupational exposure limit of 0.6 p.p.m. The geometric mean exposure was 0.004 p.p.m. (95% CI 0.003-0.006) during ordinary activity, 0.01 p.p.m. (95% CI 0.005-0.02) during shutdown and 0.28 p.p.m. (95% CI 0.16-0.49) during tank work. Workers performing annual cleaning and maintenance of tanks containing crude oil or residues of crude oil had higher levels of exposure than workers performing other tasks, including work near open hydrocarbon-transport systems (all P
OBJECTIVE: According to the Norwegian Road Traffic Act, car drivers are not allowed to operate a vehicle with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) above 0.2 g/kg. Depending on the size of the boat or ship, boat drivers/captains/first mates are not allowed to conduct the boat with a BAC above 0.8 g/kg when driving small boats (length less than 15 m) and above 1.5 g/kg when running larger vessels/ships. The new Sea Act of June 2005 states that captains/first mates cannot conduct a ship if he/she has a BAC above 0.2 g/kg. Our aim was to determine the current median BAC in a large population of car and boat drivers in Norway. Our other aim was to study if median BAC was higher in boat drivers than in car drivers who were suspected by the police to be impaired. Furthermore, we wanted to investigate if the BAC levels were differently distributed by gender or age within and between these two groups. METHODS: The Norwegian Institute of Public Health analyzes blood samples from all car/boat drivers suspected of driving under the influence of alcohol and non-alcoholic drugs. In the present study, samples submitted between 01.05 and 01.09 in 2002-2004 were included. Drivers, who in addition tested positive for drugs or abuse substances other than ethanol were excluded. RESULTS: There were 321 boat drivers and 3,061 car drivers who were suspected to be under the influence of ethanol only. The median BAC in boat drivers (1.76 g/kg [range 0.02-3.54]) was significantly higher compared to that in car drivers (1.54 g/kg [range 0.00-4.27]). In the car driver group, the mean BAC did not differ significantly between men and women. The median level of BAC was significantly higher in men than in women in the boat driver group (1.77 g/kg with CI 1.69-1.85 vs. 1.27 g/kg with CI 0.78-1.76). CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol impairment of car drivers is known to be considered the most important contributing cause of car crash injuries. Driving a boat may demand the same degree of performance skills as driving a car. The median BAC in apprehended boat drivers was considerably high in the present study. The median BAC was also high in car drivers despite strict legislation. The population of drivers of cars in our study, however, is from previous studies known to contain a large proportion of heavy drinkers. Less is known about the drinking habits in boat drivers, and caution is needed in generalizing from our results. However, our results indicate the possible need for stricter legislation and more frequent police control that will hopefully prevent serious accidents caused by ethanol drinking at sea.
BACKGROUND AND MATERIAL: Cholera was the horror disease in Norwegian cities in the 18th century. The City of Kristiansand had a quarantine station and hospital at Odderøy island from 1804. We have studied the quarantine organisation and compared the number of cholera deaths in different cities along the coast. RESULTS: Drammen is comparable to Kristiansand and had many visiting trading ships. During 1832-33, 1833 and 1857 the Drammen community had registered 544 cholera patients; 336 died. Kristiansand had a total of only 15 deaths (1833, 1853 and 1866), the quarantine hospital included. Also compared to other cities, Kristiansand had few deaths. INTERPRETATION: The reason for the better cholera statistics in Kristiansand is probably the quarantine station and hospital at Odderøy island (1804). The city's health authorities had efficient routines and knowledge, probably adopted from the quarantine station and the hospital.
Work-related injuries in commercial fishing are of concern internationally. To better identify the causes of injury, this study coded occupational injuries by working processes in commercial fishing for fresh market fish.
A classification system of the work processes was developed by participation in fishing vessel trips where observations and video recordings of the work operations on board were collected. Subsequently the system was pilot tested using the Danish Maritime Authority injury reports.
The developed classification system contains 17 main categories and up to 13 sub-categories of the work processes for each of the five different types of fishing. A total of 620 injury reports were reviewed and coded. Five percent (n = 33) of these were fatal injuries. The working processes were identified and coded according to the developed classification system for 553 (89%) injury reports: Danish seiner (n = 83), gill-netter (n = 122), beam trawler (n = 71), twin-trawler 2-T (n = 96), single/pair trawler 1-T (n = 181). Sixty-seven (11%) of the reports were unclassifiable due to lack of information. Preparing, shooting, and hauling of the gear and nets accounted for 50% of the injuries; they were most serious type of injuries such as fractures and sprains. Walking about the ship, in particular embarking and disembarking, climbing and descending ladders accounted for nearly one-fifth of the injuries.
We found that the working processes related to working with the gear and nets vary greatly in the different fishing methods. Coding of the injuries to the specific working processes allows for targeted prevention efforts.
Commercial fishing is an extremely dangerous economic activity. In order to more accurately describe the risks involved, a specific injury coding based on the working process was developed.
Observation on six different types of vessels was conducted and allowed a description and a classification of the principal working processes on all kinds of vessels and a detailed classification for industrial trawlers. In industrial trawling, fish are landed for processing purposes, for example, for the production of fish oil and fish meal. The classification was subsequently used to code the injuries reported to the Danish Maritime Authority over a 5-year period.
On industrial trawlers, 374 of 394 (95%) injuries were captured by the classification. Setting out and hauling in the gear and nets were the processes with the most injuries and accounted for 58.9% of all injuries. A relatively large number of injuries occurred when embarking and disembarking. Specific risks were identified in a number of other working processes.
Specific areas for risk prevention in fishery may be identified by using a detailed classification system that takes both the specific method of fishing and the working processes into consideration.
Survivorship is one of the least studied and thus least understood aspects of a breast cancer experience. Defined as a life-long, dynamic process, survivorship begins when people have completed medical treatment for breast cancer, yet live with the memories of their treatment and the possibility of a cancer reoccurrence. The numbers of women surviving breast cancer are growing, which means research on survivorship is imperative. In this article, I examine dragon boat racing (DBR) for breast cancer survivors. DBR has been adapted to a woman-centered, community-based leisure pursuit focused on life after medical treatment for breast cancer. Active interviews with 11 participants revealed that DBR contributes to women's social, emotional, physical, spiritual, and mental health. In turn, feeling healthy in these five dimensions enhanced the women's survivorship of breast cancer. The findings demonstrate the roles of leisure in the health and well-being of women who are breast cancer survivors.
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To study crew referrals to out-patient port services from 3 passenger ships during 12 months (2004), with focus on dentist appointments. The median number of crew on Ship A was 561, on Ship B 534 and on Ship C 614. METHODS: Crew referrals were registered continuously and after each cruise segment recorded in the ship's doctor's medical cruise report, from which the data were retrieved and reviewed. RESULTS: During 2004 the doctors of the 3 sister ships had a total of 8888 crew consultations (Table 1). Mean number of doctor consultations for crew was 17.5 a day. On Ship A 50%, on B 59% and on C 70% of the port referrals were dentist appointments. A crew member was referred to a dentist every 7 (Ship C) to 10 days (Ships A + B). Among the specified dental referrals, 18% were extraction requests. CONCLUSIONS: The ship's doctors had a busy crew practice, but were neither trained nor equipped to do elective dentistry aboard. Crew referral rate to services ashore was low, but 50-70% of the referrals for out-patient port services concerned dentistry. Inadequate health insurance caused low-wage crew to request free extractions instead of expensive repair in high-cost ports. As dentistry in local ports is a poor substitute for the person's own dentist, doctors performing seafarer examinations should ensure that dental problems are solved before sign-on.