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[An Enemy of the People--about Dr Harald Engelsen and work-related lead poisoning in Horten]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature74897
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2004 Dec 16;124(24):3235-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-16-2004
Author
Jan Sommerfelt-Pettersen
Aksel Ongre
Author Affiliation
SJ SAN SJØ, Postboks 41 K-16 Haakonsvern, 5886 Bergen.
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2004 Dec 16;124(24):3235-8
Date
Dec-16-2004
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
English Abstract
History, 19th Century
History, 20th Century
Humans
Lead Poisoning - history
Male
Naval Medicine - history
Norway
Occupational Diseases - history
Occupational Health - history - legislation & jurisprudence
Physicians - history
Portraits
Ships
Workers' Compensation - history - legislation & jurisprudence
Abstract
Little attention was paid to lead poisoning in Norway before 1930. In 1931-33, however, Dr Harald Engelsen, a naval surgeon, reported to the National Insurance Administration more than 40 cases among shipyard workers. The first worker in which he diagnosed lead poisoning had consulted other doctors, but only got a symptomatic diagnosis. Dr Engelsen was then consulted by several others with similar symptoms. At the outset his diagnosis was doubted and a considerable disagreement ensued with colleagues and yard representatives; he was compared with Dr Stockmann in Henrik Ibsen's play An Enemy of the People. The controversy escalated. A commission appointed by the government to examine the matter concluded that there had been cases of lead poisoning in the shipyard, that mandatory requirements had not been strictly complied with, and that monitoring of working conditions had been fragmentary. Most of the workers were granted compensation and pensions. For a publication on lead poisoning, Dr Engelsen was awarded the University of Oslo's gold medal, and for his work for improving seamen's health and welfare he was awarded the St. Olav Order. In 1938 he was appointed head of medical services in the Royal Norwegian Navy.
PubMed ID
15608777 View in PubMed
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Arctic Marine Transport Workshop, Held at Scott Polar Research Institute Cambridge University United Kingdom, 28-30 September 2004.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301423
Source
Institute of the North with U.S. Arctic Research Commission and the International Arctic Science Committee. .
Publication Type
Report
Date
2005
Author
Brigham, Lawson
Ellis, Ben
Source
Institute of the North with U.S. Arctic Research Commission and the International Arctic Science Committee. .
Date
2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Report
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Marine safety
Sea ice
Climate change
Shipping and transportation
Oceans and Seas
Abstract
This report summarizes conclusions reached by experts that met in 2004 to discuss Arctic marine transport, international marine safety, sea ice and climate change. The report includes a research agenda and identifies critical issues relevant to the future of Arctic shipping.
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Behavior of aluminum in aluminum welders and manufacturers of aluminum sulfate--impact on biological monitoring.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature153218
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2008 Dec;34(6):451-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2008
Author
Vesa Riihimäki
Sinikka Valkonen
Bernt Engström
Antti Tossavainen
Pertti Mutanen
Antero Aitio
Author Affiliation
Good Practices and Competence, Statistical Services, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, FI-00250 Helsinki, Finland. vesa.riihimaki@ttl.fi
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2008 Dec;34(6):451-62
Date
Dec-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Air Pollutants, Occupational - analysis - blood - urine
Alum Compounds - analysis - metabolism
Aluminum - analysis - blood - urine
Dust - analysis
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Female
Finland
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure - analysis
Ships
Spectrophotometry, Atomic
Welding
X-Ray Diffraction
Abstract
The suitability of determining aluminum in serum or urine as a form of biological monitoring was critically assessed.
Airborne and internal aluminum exposure was assessed for 12 aluminum welders in a shipyard and 5 manufacturers of aluminum sulfate. Particles were characterized with X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Aluminum in air and biological samples was analyzed using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Basic toxicokinetic features were inferred from the data.
The mean 8-hour time-weighted average concentration of aluminum was 1.1 (range 0.008-6.1) mg/m(3) for the shipyard and 0.13 (range 0.02-0.5) mg/m(3) for the aluminum sulfate plant. Welding fume contained aluminum oxide particles
PubMed ID
19137207 View in PubMed
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Benzene exposure on a crude oil production vessel.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature171429
Source
Ann Occup Hyg. 2006 Mar;50(2):123-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2006
Author
J. Kirkeleit
T. Riise
M. Bråtveit
B E Moen
Author Affiliation
Section for Occupational Medicine, Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Bergen, Kalfarveien 31, N-5018 Bergen, Norway. Jorunn.Kirkeleit@isf.uib.no
Source
Ann Occup Hyg. 2006 Mar;50(2):123-9
Date
Mar-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aerosols - analysis
Benzene - analysis
Cohort Studies
Environmental monitoring
Extraction and Processing Industry
Humans
Maximum Allowable Concentration
North Sea
Norway
Occupational Exposure - analysis
Occupations
Petroleum
Ships
Abstract
The aim was to describe the personal exposure to benzene on a typical crude oil production vessel and to identify factors influencing the exposure level.
The study population included process operators, deck workers, mechanics and contractors on a production vessel in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. The personal exposure to benzene during ordinary activity, during a short shutdown and during tank work was monitored using organic vapour passive dosimeter badges (3M 3500). Information on the tasks performed on the day of sampling was recorded. Exposure was assessed by grouping the measurements according to job category, mode of operation and the tasks performed on the sampling day. Univariate analysis of variance was used to test the differences between the groups.
Forty-two workers participated in the exposure assessment, comprising a total of 139 measurements. The arithmetic and geometric mean of benzene exposure for all measurements was 0.43 and 0.02 p.p.m., respectively. Twenty-five measurements (18%) were below the limit of detection (0.001 p.p.m.), while ten samples (7%) exceeded the occupational exposure limit of 0.6 p.p.m. The geometric mean exposure was 0.004 p.p.m. (95% CI 0.003-0.006) during ordinary activity, 0.01 p.p.m. (95% CI 0.005-0.02) during shutdown and 0.28 p.p.m. (95% CI 0.16-0.49) during tank work. Workers performing annual cleaning and maintenance of tanks containing crude oil or residues of crude oil had higher levels of exposure than workers performing other tasks, including work near open hydrocarbon-transport systems (all P
PubMed ID
16371415 View in PubMed
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Blood alcohol concentrations in apprehended drivers of cars and boats suspected to be impaired by the police.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87049
Source
Traffic Inj Prev. 2008 Mar;9(1):31-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2008
Author
Khiabani Hassan Z
Opdal Mimi Stokke
Mørland Jørg
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Division of Forensic Toxicology and Drug Abuse, Oslo, Norway. hassan.khiabani@fhi.no
Source
Traffic Inj Prev. 2008 Mar;9(1):31-6
Date
Mar-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - legislation & jurisprudence
Automobile Driving - legislation & jurisprudence
Breath Tests
Confidence Intervals
Ethanol - blood
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality - trends
Norway
Police - standards
Probability
Risk assessment
Sex Factors
Ships
Statistics, nonparametric
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: According to the Norwegian Road Traffic Act, car drivers are not allowed to operate a vehicle with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) above 0.2 g/kg. Depending on the size of the boat or ship, boat drivers/captains/first mates are not allowed to conduct the boat with a BAC above 0.8 g/kg when driving small boats (length less than 15 m) and above 1.5 g/kg when running larger vessels/ships. The new Sea Act of June 2005 states that captains/first mates cannot conduct a ship if he/she has a BAC above 0.2 g/kg. Our aim was to determine the current median BAC in a large population of car and boat drivers in Norway. Our other aim was to study if median BAC was higher in boat drivers than in car drivers who were suspected by the police to be impaired. Furthermore, we wanted to investigate if the BAC levels were differently distributed by gender or age within and between these two groups. METHODS: The Norwegian Institute of Public Health analyzes blood samples from all car/boat drivers suspected of driving under the influence of alcohol and non-alcoholic drugs. In the present study, samples submitted between 01.05 and 01.09 in 2002-2004 were included. Drivers, who in addition tested positive for drugs or abuse substances other than ethanol were excluded. RESULTS: There were 321 boat drivers and 3,061 car drivers who were suspected to be under the influence of ethanol only. The median BAC in boat drivers (1.76 g/kg [range 0.02-3.54]) was significantly higher compared to that in car drivers (1.54 g/kg [range 0.00-4.27]). In the car driver group, the mean BAC did not differ significantly between men and women. The median level of BAC was significantly higher in men than in women in the boat driver group (1.77 g/kg with CI 1.69-1.85 vs. 1.27 g/kg with CI 0.78-1.76). CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol impairment of car drivers is known to be considered the most important contributing cause of car crash injuries. Driving a boat may demand the same degree of performance skills as driving a car. The median BAC in apprehended boat drivers was considerably high in the present study. The median BAC was also high in car drivers despite strict legislation. The population of drivers of cars in our study, however, is from previous studies known to contain a large proportion of heavy drinkers. Less is known about the drinking habits in boat drivers, and caution is needed in generalizing from our results. However, our results indicate the possible need for stricter legislation and more frequent police control that will hopefully prevent serious accidents caused by ethanol drinking at sea.
PubMed ID
18338292 View in PubMed
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[Cholera and quarantine in Kristiansand]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature83007
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2005 Dec 15;125(24):3490-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-15-2005
Author
Torstveit Leiv
Vesterhus Per
Author Affiliation
Fagerholt skole, 4604 Kristiansand.
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2005 Dec 15;125(24):3490-3
Date
Dec-15-2005
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cholera - history - mortality - transmission
Cities - epidemiology
Communicable Disease Control - history
Disease Outbreaks - history
History, 20th Century
Humans
Norway - epidemiology
Quarantine - history
Ships
Abstract
BACKGROUND AND MATERIAL: Cholera was the horror disease in Norwegian cities in the 18th century. The City of Kristiansand had a quarantine station and hospital at Odderøy island from 1804. We have studied the quarantine organisation and compared the number of cholera deaths in different cities along the coast. RESULTS: Drammen is comparable to Kristiansand and had many visiting trading ships. During 1832-33, 1833 and 1857 the Drammen community had registered 544 cholera patients; 336 died. Kristiansand had a total of only 15 deaths (1833, 1853 and 1866), the quarantine hospital included. Also compared to other cities, Kristiansand had few deaths. INTERPRETATION: The reason for the better cholera statistics in Kristiansand is probably the quarantine station and hospital at Odderøy island (1804). The city's health authorities had efficient routines and knowledge, probably adopted from the quarantine station and the hospital.
PubMed ID
16357901 View in PubMed
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Classification and coding of commercial fishing injuries by work processes: an experience in the Danish fresh market fishing industry.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature174770
Source
Am J Ind Med. 2005 Jun;47(6):528-37
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2005
Author
O C Jensen
S. Stage
P. Noer
Author Affiliation
Research Unit of Maritime Medicine, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark. OCJ@FMM.SDU.dk
Source
Am J Ind Med. 2005 Jun;47(6):528-37
Date
Jun-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Occupational - classification - statistics & numerical data
Adult
Databases as Topic
Denmark - epidemiology
Fisheries - instrumentation - manpower - methods
Forms and Records Control
Humans
Middle Aged
Occupational Diseases - classification - epidemiology
Pilot Projects
Ships
Task Performance and Analysis
Wounds and injuries - classification - epidemiology
Abstract
Work-related injuries in commercial fishing are of concern internationally. To better identify the causes of injury, this study coded occupational injuries by working processes in commercial fishing for fresh market fish.
A classification system of the work processes was developed by participation in fishing vessel trips where observations and video recordings of the work operations on board were collected. Subsequently the system was pilot tested using the Danish Maritime Authority injury reports.
The developed classification system contains 17 main categories and up to 13 sub-categories of the work processes for each of the five different types of fishing. A total of 620 injury reports were reviewed and coded. Five percent (n = 33) of these were fatal injuries. The working processes were identified and coded according to the developed classification system for 553 (89%) injury reports: Danish seiner (n = 83), gill-netter (n = 122), beam trawler (n = 71), twin-trawler 2-T (n = 96), single/pair trawler 1-T (n = 181). Sixty-seven (11%) of the reports were unclassifiable due to lack of information. Preparing, shooting, and hauling of the gear and nets accounted for 50% of the injuries; they were most serious type of injuries such as fractures and sprains. Walking about the ship, in particular embarking and disembarking, climbing and descending ladders accounted for nearly one-fifth of the injuries.
We found that the working processes related to working with the gear and nets vary greatly in the different fishing methods. Coding of the injuries to the specific working processes allows for targeted prevention efforts.
PubMed ID
15898090 View in PubMed
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Classification of working processes to facilitate occupational hazard coding on industrial trawlers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature183599
Source
Am J Ind Med. 2003 Oct;44(4):424-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2003
Author
Olaf C Jensen
Søren Stage
Preben Noer
Linda Kaerlev
Author Affiliation
Research Unit of Maritime Medicine, University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, Denmark. OJ@FMM.SDU.dk
Source
Am J Ind Med. 2003 Oct;44(4):424-30
Date
Oct-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Denmark - epidemiology
Fisheries - statistics & numerical data
Forms and Records Control
Humans
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology
Occupational Exposure - classification
Risk assessment
Risk Management
Safety Management - methods - organization & administration
Ships - methods
Work - classification
Wounds and injuries - classification - epidemiology
Abstract
Commercial fishing is an extremely dangerous economic activity. In order to more accurately describe the risks involved, a specific injury coding based on the working process was developed.
Observation on six different types of vessels was conducted and allowed a description and a classification of the principal working processes on all kinds of vessels and a detailed classification for industrial trawlers. In industrial trawling, fish are landed for processing purposes, for example, for the production of fish oil and fish meal. The classification was subsequently used to code the injuries reported to the Danish Maritime Authority over a 5-year period.
On industrial trawlers, 374 of 394 (95%) injuries were captured by the classification. Setting out and hauling in the gear and nets were the processes with the most injuries and accounted for 58.9% of all injuries. A relatively large number of injuries occurred when embarking and disembarking. Specific risks were identified in a number of other working processes.
Specific areas for risk prevention in fishery may be identified by using a detailed classification system that takes both the specific method of fishing and the working processes into consideration.
PubMed ID
14502771 View in PubMed
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The contribution of dragon boat racing to women's health and breast cancer survivorship.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature159179
Source
Qual Health Res. 2008 Feb;18(2):222-33
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2008
Author
Diana C Parry
Author Affiliation
Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. dcparry@healthy.uwaterloo.ca
Source
Qual Health Res. 2008 Feb;18(2):222-33
Date
Feb-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Breast Neoplasms - psychology
Female
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Leisure Activities
Middle Aged
Ontario
Quality of Life - psychology
Ships
Sports
Survivors
Women's health
Abstract
Survivorship is one of the least studied and thus least understood aspects of a breast cancer experience. Defined as a life-long, dynamic process, survivorship begins when people have completed medical treatment for breast cancer, yet live with the memories of their treatment and the possibility of a cancer reoccurrence. The numbers of women surviving breast cancer are growing, which means research on survivorship is imperative. In this article, I examine dragon boat racing (DBR) for breast cancer survivors. DBR has been adapted to a woman-centered, community-based leisure pursuit focused on life after medical treatment for breast cancer. Active interviews with 11 participants revealed that DBR contributes to women's social, emotional, physical, spiritual, and mental health. In turn, feeling healthy in these five dimensions enhanced the women's survivorship of breast cancer. The findings demonstrate the roles of leisure in the health and well-being of women who are breast cancer survivors.
PubMed ID
18216341 View in PubMed
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84 records – page 1 of 9.