Other studies have shed light on specific types of seafarers' job stressors and job satisfaction. However, so far there have not been any systematic attempts to capture the motivational profile of seafarers when it comes to both work demands and work resources. The purpose of this study is to explore the motivational profiles of seafarers in the Danish merchant fleet by identifying factors which motivate or demotivate seafarers to stay in their specific profession. Furthermore, we examine if there is a difference in work motivators and demotivators between Danish seafaring officers and non-officers. Material and methods. A questionnaire was sent out to 560 Danish-speaking seafarers with a Danish postal address; 346 seafarers returned the questionnaire, equalling a 61% response rate.
The work motivators which were identified were: duration of home leave, level of responsibility, and level of challenge. The main demotivating factors that were identified were: being away from home, shipping company´s HRM, and regulatory requirements.
The results contribute to a deeper understanding of how seafarers perceive their occupation, and help to identify areas and aspects which might need change if employers want to retain their workforce in the long run. Overall, the results show that most of the job demands and job resources that seafarers perceive are psychosocial. When it comes to the best aspects of seafaring, over 70% of the answers were related to psychosocial factors rather than organizational or structural factors. In relation to the perceived worst aspects in seafaring, about 85% of the responses fell into psychosocial categories. The differences in the motivational profiles of officers and non-officers showed the importance of not only looking at the seafaring profession as a whole but also considering the different characteristics of various jobs onboard.
Human behavior impacts the environment we live in. In order to better understand how one group, boat owners, in three Nordic countries adjacent to the Baltic Sea; Sweden, Finland and Denmark, viewed the relationship between the marine environment, leisure boats and issues of responsibility, a survey study was conducted (n = 1701). The results show that there are differences between gender in many areas and those women in general are more environmentally friendly than men in their views and behavior. Men and women seek information about boating by different channels and this knowledge may be used in future information campaigns. Both men and women ranked boat owners as having the lowest impact on the marine environment and perceived these to be responsible for addressing environmental issues caused by leisure boat activities. The results also show that it is important to prove the effectiveness of an environmentally safe product since this factor is ranked higher than price when considering buying a product. The results suggest that once environmentally friendly behavior is established, such as recycling, this behavior continues. One implication of this study is that small changes in human behavior are seen as acceptable but larger commitments are more difficult to achieve. If individuals do not feel responsible for causing environmental damage, this aspect needs to be addressed in information aimed at this group. Novel approaches on framing the information and new ways of disseminating information are needed.
In 2010 a medical sociologic survey was organized to assess related to health quality of life of 350 sailors aged 20-72 years of Sakhalinskaya oblast. The questionnaire Euro Qul = 5D was applied. The study revealed that in approximately 5% of shipboard personnel are detected such deviations in quality of life as pain/discomfort, anxiety/depression primarily in persons of middle age. Besides, during last year health improvement was mentioned by 15% of respondents independently of age. The 100 points scale was proposed to respondents to assess their health conditions. The average value was 90 points. The survey results demonstrated high assessment of quality of life as related to health of sailors passed the professional selection. This technique can be applied as an additional indicator of sailors' health.
Dorothea Lynde Dix, 19th century defender of the rights of the mentally ill to hospital care, holds a significant place in the history of Nova Scotia. Her two major accomplishments in this province include laying the groundwork for its first psychiatric hospital and the outfitting of treacherous Sable Island with rescue equipment to aid ships stranded off its shore. The techniques that Miss Dix employed in these missions parallel those she successfully used in the establishment of psychiatric hospitals in a number of American states. It will be argued that her influence has been a positive one on the treatment of the mentally ill particularly in light of the failures of the deinstitutionalization movement.
Northern Europe is a popular cruise destination, but many non-Scandinavian cruise ship's doctors who are used to enthusiastic service from specialists ashore, get frustrated when referring passengers or crew to out-patient medical evaluation. Norway's national health care system is described and used as an example of medical conditions in a welfare state with a relatively well-functioning national health care system: Emergency cases are usually promptly admitted. Out-patient specialist consultations are available in public polyclinics, but waiting time can be considerable, also for patients from ships. Private specialists are fully booked weeks in advance and do not work from Friday to Monday and during holidays. Public and private medical service capacity is significantly reduced during the summer months. Hence, most specialists ashore are not eager to see demanding ship patients. Ship's doctors should limit referral to conditions that require specific procedures that are not available on the vessel but are necessary for the patient to be able to continue cruising or working aboard. Crewmembers who are unfit for work aboard, should instead be signed off and repatriated for diagnostic work-up and follow-up at home. In cases of hospitalisation or necessary referral ashore, the ship's doctor should always confer in advance with the company's ship's port agents and make necessary shore-side arrangements through them.
Commercial fishing is one of the most dangerous occupations in the United States. During 1992-2008, an annual average of 58 reported deaths occurred (128 deaths per 100,000 workers), compared with an average of 5,894 deaths (four per 100,000 workers) among all U.S. workers. During the 1990s, safety interventions addressing specific hazards identified in Alaska resulted in a significant decline in the state's commercial fishing fatality rate. During 2007-2010, CDC expanded surveillance of commercial fishing fatalities to the rest of the country's fishing areas. To review the hazards and risk factors for occupational mortality in the U.S. commercial fishing industry, and to explore how hazards and risk factors differ among fisheries and locations, CDC collected and analyzed data on each fatality reported during 2000-2009. This report summarizes the results, which showed that, among the 504 U.S. commercial fishing deaths, the majority occurred after a vessel disaster (261 deaths, 52%) or a fall overboard (155 deaths, 31%). By region, 133 (26%) deaths occurred off the coast of Alaska, 124 (25%) in the Northeast, 116 (23%) in the Gulf of Mexico, 83 (16%) off the West Coast, and 41 (8%) in the Mid- and South Atlantic. Type of fishing was known in 478 deaths; shellfish (226, 47%) was the most common, followed by groundfish (144, 30%) and pelagic fish (97, 20%). To reduce fatalities in this industry, additional prevention measures tailored to specific high-risk fisheries and focusing on prevention of vessel disasters and falls overboard are needed.
The purpose of the study was to study the circumstances and incidence rates of fatal accidents in inspection obligated and non-inspection obligated Danish fishing vessels to identify areas for prevention. Information about the fatalities came from maritime authority reports, including vessel disaster reports, post mortem reports, maritime inquiries and police reports. The person- and vessel years at risk came from the Danish Directorate of Fisheries. During the period 1989-2005, 114 fatalities occurred. Sixty-one of the fatalities occurred in 36 vessel disasters mainly caused by foundering/capsizing due to stability changes in rough weather and collisions; 39 fatal occupational accidents mainly occurred on the larger inspection obligated trawlers during fishing. In the remaining 14 other fatal accidents, the main causal factors were difficult embarking/disembarking conditions by darkness in foreign ports and alcohol intoxication. In the period 1995-2005, the overall incidence rate was 10 per 10,000 fishermen per year with no down-going trend during that period. The fatal accident rates are still too high, despite the efforts to reduce the risk. Increased focus on regular and repeated safety training for all fishermen and improved safety measures are needed, especially in the underscored areas of sea disasters concerning small vessels and occupational accidents on big vessels. Better registration of time at risk for fishermen is needed to validate the effect of the safety measures.