Epidemiological studies related to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) have mainly used crude proxies for exposure, such as job titles, distance to, or use of different equipment emitting RF EMF. The Royal Norwegian Navy (RNoN) has measured RF field emitted from high-frequency antennas and radars on several spots where the crew would most likely be located aboard fast patrol boats (FPB). These boats are small, with short distance between the crew and the equipment emitting RF field. We have described the measured RF exposure aboard FPB and suggested different methods for calculations of total exposure and annual dose. Linear and spatial average in addition to percentage of ICNIRP and squared deviation of ICNIRP has been used. The methods will form the basis of a job exposure matrix where relative differences in exposure between groups of crew members can be used in further epidemiological studies of reproductive health.
Winter navigation is a complex but common operation in north-European sea areas. In Finnish waters, the smooth flow of maritime traffic and safety of vessel navigation during the winter period are managed through the Finnish-Swedish winter navigation system (FSWNS). This article focuses on accident risks in winter navigation operations, beginning with a brief outline of the FSWNS. The study analyses a hazard identification model of winter navigation and reviews accident data extracted from four winter periods. These are adopted as a basis for visualizing the risks in winter navigation operations. The results reveal that experts consider ship independent navigation in ice conditions the most complex navigational operation, which is confirmed by accident data analysis showing that the operation constitutes the type of navigation with the highest number of accidents reported. The severity of the accidents during winter navigation is mainly categorized as less serious. Collision is the most typical accident in ice navigation and general cargo the type of vessel most frequently involved in these accidents. Consolidated ice, ice ridges and ice thickness between 15 and 40cm represent the most common ice conditions in which accidents occur. Thus, the analysis presented in this article establishes the key elements for identifying the operation types which would benefit most from further safety engineering and safety or risk management development.
The growth of maritime oil transportation in the Gulf of Finland (GoF), North-Eastern Baltic Sea, increases environmental risks by increasing the probability of oil accidents. By integrating the work of a multidisciplinary research team and information from several sources, we have developed a probabilistic risk assessment application that considers the likely future development of maritime traffic and oil transportation in the area and the resulting risk of environmental pollution. This metamodel is used to compare the effects of two preventative management actions on the tanker collision probabilities and the consequent risk. The resulting risk is evaluated from four different perspectives. Bayesian networks enable large amounts of information about causalities to be integrated and utilized in probabilistic inference. Compared with the baseline period of 2007-2008, the worst-case scenario is that the risk level increases 4-fold by the year 2015. The management measures are evaluated and found to decrease the risk by 4-13%, but the utility gained by their joint implementation would be less than the sum of their independent effects. In addition to the results concerning the varying risk levels, the application provides interesting information about the relationships between the different elements of the system.
The authors highlight the future potential of the Transpolar Sea Route, an Arctic shipping route which has thus far been neglected in the realm of academia and in the public eyes. The article represents the first comprehensive assessment on the feasibility of the TSR from a climatic and economic standpoint and discusses how legal and geostrategic considerations will influence the development of this shipping route. The authors conclude that the opening and future development of Arctic shipping routes will not only depend on favorable climatic conditions across the Arctic Ocean, but will also be influenced by a shift in economic and political spheres of influence. The development of the TSR and its significant economic potential may in part be determined by key geostrategic considerations as the center of economic and political power continues to shift towards Asia.
This article presents an analysis of study loss in a three year longitudinal study of 1816 employees at two Danish shipyards, one of which closed just before the start of the study. The aim of the study was to elucidate the health consequences of a company closedown and the subsequent job loss. The study population responded to an identical questionnaire in 1983, 1984 and 1985. The participation rate in 1983 was 73%. The percentage of drop outs in 1984 and 1985 was 15-20% of the total numbers responding in the first year. We examined this study loss in relation to the characteristics of the respondents, using the first round of data collection as a baseline. In a multivariate analysis, age and seniority at the shipyard were the only variables that were significantly associated with non-participation in 1984 and 1985. It is concluded that the drop outs did not appear to introduce a serious risk of selection bias in 1984 and 1985. A comparison between drop outs and late respondents in 1984 and 1985 did not support the supposition that information about late respondents can be extrapolated to drop outs.
347 Finnish deck officers completed the questionnaire on medical training, knowledge and skills. The following conclusions could be drawn: a. Medical training must be based on generally accepted standards, both nationally and internationally. b. More practical exercises should be included in the training. c. Refresher medical training clearly increases knowledge and skills but it also gives the possibility to train, maintain and repeat practical routines. d. Evaluation of the skills should be a part of qualification. e. Good medical knowledge on board ship needs radio-medical services and vice versa.
For centuries, tuberculosis has been identified as a burden to seafarers. In this study, we assessed the magnitude of tuberculosis among merchant seafarers today. Furthermore, we identified the most likely routes of M. tuberculosis transmission by the use of DNA fingerprinting. A database containing all culture-positive tuberculosis cases in Denmark in 1992-2003 was combined with a register on all seafarers and their employment periods aboard Danish ships. All strains of M. tuberculosis were analysed using DNA-subtyping. 64 cases of culture positive tuberculosis among seafarers were identified. The risk of tuberculosis among males was 1.51 (1.10-2.01) compared with the general population. Two of the 64 cases were likely to be shipping-related, 5 were possibly shipping-related, and 10 were less likely to be shipping-related. The remaining 47 cases were very unlikely to be shipping related. Including the 2 first categories, the incidence was 0.09 cases per 1000 y at sea. The excess risk of tuberculosis among active and former Danish seafarers is most probably due to infections acquired in Denmark. Despite multi-cultural crews aboard, including many from high-incidence countries, our study indicates that only limited transmission of M. tuberculosis takes place among crew aboard modern ships or during shore leaves.
With 852 victims from 17 different countries, the sinking of the Estonia was Europe's most severe passenger ferry disaster. The Finnish Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) team identified all 93 victims recovered from the sea within 33 days of the accident as well as victim number 94 found 18 months later. Dental identification was established in 57 cases (60%).
How many people have experienced the thrill of a competition that spans generations upon generations and is distinctly unique to the Northwest Coastal Salish Tribes. War canoe racing still exists today and is a constant reminder of a way of life that is quickly vanishing, almost as fast as the ancient forests of cedar--the tree of life for the Northwest Tribes. The C.E.D.A.R. Project's overall mission is 'to improve the health of the Lummi community.' The goals of the workplan seek collaboration of the partners and institutional change; increased health related education and health professions opportunities; and empowerment of the community partners to assure the sustainability of the Community-Based Public Health Initiative.