The occurrence of abscess disease, caseous lymphadenitis, and pulmonary adenomatosis in sheep in Denmark is reported for the first time. Subcutaneous abscesses were observed in imported 4- to 5-month-old lambs of the Lacaune breed 10 days after arrival in Denmark. Abscesses were mostly located in the head, neck and shoulder regions close to the regional lymph nodes. Bacteriological examinations revealed growth of Staphylococcus aureus ssp. anaerobius in all animals with subcutaneously located abscesses containing a viscous white-yellow odourless mass. In addition, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was isolated from abscesses in one animal and lesions consistent with pulmonary adenomatosis were found in four animals.
In the South-Western part of Norway, lambs of the Old Norwegian short tailed breed (Spael) and crosses with the Dala breed sometimes develop an Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) shortly after they have been moved onto lush aftermath grazings from mountain pastures. This article covers the symptoms and pathoanatomical findings in lambs affected with ARDS (Table I). The lambs acquired ARDS 18-72 hours after change of pasture. Heavy dysphne, frothing at the mouth, elevated temperature (greater than 41 degrees C), tachycardia, urination and ruminal atony were striking symptoms (Table II). In the early phase of the disease the lambs were often in a tranquil state, depressed, sometimes atactic, and it seemed that they went into the overt dysphneic phase on exposure to physical stress. Morbidity was 1.4%, mortality 36%. Post mortem findings included frothy contents in the airways, heavy congestion and oedema in the lungs which also had emphysematous areas, subepicardial petechiae, varying degree of mottling of the myocardium, and also varying degree of paleness and spottyness of renal cortices. The lungs showed extensive focal alveolar and interstitial emphysema, septal congestion, alveolar oedema, partial collapse, and accumulations of polymorphonuclear leucocytes in vascular beds. Later, fibrillar material was found in the alveoli, alveolar macrophages accumulated, and interalveolar septa thickened because of increased fibromuscular tissue and mononuclear cells (Fig. 1, A-D). Alveolar epithelial hyperplasia was not seen in any stage. Four lambs were moderately infected with lungworms (D. filaria), three in the prepatent, one in the patent phase. Histopathological changes in other organs included granular degenerations of myocardial threads, and development of a glomerulonephritis and focal interstitial nephritis (Fig. 1, E-F). This disease entity (ARDS) in lambs seems to be unknown in literature. The disease is compared with other known diseases in ruminants. Etiology is so far unknown. Possibilities of sudden ruminal histamine formation coinciding with a hypersensitivity reaction is discussed.
The reuse of municipal sewage for agricultural purposes is becoming more prevalent. The literature concerning the impact of this practice is reviewed. It is readily apparent that agricultural reuse of municipal sewage is preferable to other common methods of disposal both from the point of view of ecological influence and economical waste utilization. There is a need to establish guidelines for the agricultural use of municipal sewage which will serve the variable conditions found in Canada and meet the public health concerns associated with an extensive agricultural use.
A description is given of complete albinism in Icelandic sheep. The albino animals, which have occurred both among white and nonwhite strains of sheep, are pure white in color with pink eyes and impaired vision in bright light. The condition is shown to be autosomal, recessive, and is assumed to be caused by a mutation of C to c, thereby being homologous to albinism in rodents. Data on mating results are tabulated. This is believed to be the first case of albinism reported in sheep.
Expression of mRNA for interleukin-6, interleukin-6Delta3, and interleukin-6Delta5 was detected in placental tissue (second and third trimesters of pregnancy) and spleen of mice immunized with sheep erythrocytes in high dose. We hypothesize that translation of mRNA yields proteins capable of binding to individual subunits of the interleukin-6 receptor and possessing effector functions.
A survey of over 600 'normal' sera from 14 animal species by immunoprecipitin tests in cellulose acetate using viron antigens revealed a high incidence of precipitating activity against a broad range of influenza A virus strains, particularly A2hHong Kong/1/68 and /PR8. However, serum treatments trypsin-heat-periodate, NaIO4, V. cholerae receptor-destroying enzyme (RDE), or kaolin eliminated most precipitating activity, which suggests that it was due to "non-specific" inhibitors of influenze viruses. A resistant minority could not be identified as inhibitor or antibody on this basis. Precipitation of the influenza A major type-specific antigen in virus-soluble antigens by human 7S gamma globulin antibody (IgG), demonstrated to be specific for influenza virus, was established as a reference reaction to identify similar immunoprecipitin reactions occurring between virus-soluble antigens and normal or immune sera. Complement fixation tests provided supplementary evidence for the presence of influenza A antibodies in these sera. Influenza A antibodies were found in only a few sera of six animal species: cat, dog, rabbit, goat, chipmunk, and sheep. Thus the animal species examined in the Ottawa area have not revealed an unequivocal reservoir for human influenza A viruses.
During the spring of 2006, a national disease outbreak caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O103:H25 was investigated in Norway. At the time of the outbreak the Norwegian School of Veterinary Science was the national reference laboratory for E. coli O157 in food, and the microbiological investigations to identify the food source were performed there. Food- and environmental samples (n=931) were collected by the Norwegian Food Safety Authorities following two different hypotheses i) that minced meat was the source of STEC, and ii) that fermented sausage was the source of STEC. Twenty seven food samples, all collected following the latter hypothesis contained eae-positive E. coli O103:H25, but none of these were stx-positive. By PFGE it was shown that isolates from one particular type of fermented sausage "morr sausage 1" were identical to the isolates from patients. Samples of sheep meat that were linked epidemiologically to meat used for sausage production also contained isolates identical or closely related to patient strains. The presented study underpins epidemiological indications that fermented sausage was the source of the outbreak, but points specifically to one particular brand of sausage as the source.