No data is yet available on incidence or persistence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men. We enrolled 374 younger male conscripts (18-29 years) in a prospective study, and they were examined twice with an interval of 6 to 8 months. Data collection included a questionnaire and a sample of cells from the penis for HPV detection using PCR. In addition, the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA was assessed in urine samples by means of PCR.The HPV prevalence at the first and second examinations was 33.8% and 31.9%, respectively. The acquisition rate of HPV (overall) during follow-up was 13.8%, and nearly one fourth of the participants were HPV positive at both examinations. Number of sex partners during follow-up was the most important risk factor for acquiring HPV (odds ratio, 17.2; 95% confidence interval, 4.6-64.7, for > or = 3 partners versus
In Sweden, society's attitudes towards teenage sexual relationships are liberal, and sexual and reproductive health issues are given high priority. Family and sex education has been taught in schools since the 1950s. The age of sexual consent is 15 years. Since 1975, abortion has been free on demand. Contraceptive counselling is free, easily available at family planning and youth health clinics. Screening for genital chlamydial infection is performed at these clinics, thus providing a "one stop shop" service. Condoms and oral contraception are available at low cost, emergency contraception is sold over the counter. Teenage childbearing is uncommon. However, sexual and reproductive health problems are on the increase among young people. During the 1990s, a period of economic stagnation in Sweden, schools have suffered budget cut backs. Sex education is taught less. Social segregation, school non-attendance, smoking, and drug use have increased. Teenage abortion rates have gone up, from 17/1000 in 1995 to 22.5/1000 in 2001. Genital chlamydial infections have increased from 14,000 cases in 1994 to 22,263 cases in 2001, 60% occurring among young people, and with the steepest increase among teenagers. Thus, a question of major concern is whether and how adolescent sexual behaviour has shifted towards more risky practices during the late 1990s.
AIM. To compare life-style and reproductive health care factors in girls with a coitus debut or = 15 years and 17 girls (19.3%) had not had their sexual debut on completion of this study. Girls with an early sexual debut had a greater number of sexually transmitted diseases (p two brothers and/or sisters (p
Testing for antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was introduced in 1984 in this major sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic in Copenhagen, which is attended by about 10,000 new patients each year. From 1984 to 1987 the proportion of patients examined for antibodies to HIV rose from 6% to 32%. The overall incidence of HIV antibody positivity decreased from 30% in 1984 to 3% in 1987, the combined result of decreased positivity in high risk patients tested and increased screening in low risk patients. HIV antibody positivity has been confined largely to homosexual men and drug addicts. Since 1985, however, 21 out of 2623 (0.8%) heterosexuals who were not drug addicts were found to be HIV antibody positive. During 1984-6 the incidence of STDs most often encountered in high risk groups (syphilis and gonorrhoea) decreased by 64% and 41% respectively, whereas the incidence of diseases most often diagnosed in low risk groups (condylomata acuminata and genital herpes) increased by 70% and 34% respectively in the same period. The addition of HIV infection to the list of STDs requires the allocation of more resources to the STD clinics to enable these clinics to handle this new problem. Screening for all patients attending an STD clinic for antibodies to HIV must be considered, and in our area it would be cost effective.
Russia has one of the fastest rising rates of HIV among women in the world. This study sought to identify key factors in HIV transmission among women in Russia. Data were collected as part of a larger clinical trial to prevent alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP). Women at risk for an AEP were recruited at women's clinics; 708 women, aged 18-44 (M = 29.04 years), completed HIV risk surveys. Structural Equation Modeling was used to test the relationships between alcohol use and sex behavior constructs with HIV/STI risk. While the model indicated that multiple factors are involved in women's HIV/STI risk, the independent alcohol use variable explains 20 % of the variance in women's HIV/STI risk. The findings suggest that alcohol use directly and indirectly predicts HIV/STI risk among women, and its effect is mediated by alcohol use before sex.
Cites: AIDS Care. 2002 Apr;14(2):147-61 PMID 11940275
The method, developed on the basis of disperse analysis, includes anonymous questioning by multicomponent questionnaires containing several blocks of questions which cover the social composition, level of knowledge, behavioral and sexual orientation, control of the reliability of answers, etc. The correlative dependence of individual blocks permits the evaluation of the level and dynamics of the formation of microsocial environment at an institution. The use of this method makes it possible to differentiate youth subpopulations by the epidemiological importance of their risk of infection and its elements in the structure of an individual institution, to find out behavioral "groups of risk" and, in accordance with the data thus obtained, to build the system of propaganda adapted to these individual subpopulations and to the whole institution.
Over the last few years, the rates of certain sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have again begun to rise in Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Paradoxically, these increases are occurring at the same time that greater numbers of researchers are publishing reports about highly successful safer sex interventions. Research that investigates this phenomenon reveals that the majority of new STIs management initiatives never reach day-to-day practice after the research period has terminated. In reaction to this, it is suggested here that researchers should begin developing their STIs management interventions in practice-based settings, with a strong emphasis being placed on ensuring target group input from the outset. While such an approach may not be able to discern precise cause-and-effect relationships, it has the benefit of enhancing use after researchers have withdrawn their support. The benefits that arise from long-term and widespread use of this approach may therefore outweigh the advantages that can occur from developing highly efficacious, but unused, STIs management strategies.