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Adaptive reasons for variation in sex ratios.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature119788
Source
CMAJ. 2012 Oct 16;184(15):1715
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-16-2012
Author
João Alpedrinha
Geoff Wild
Source
CMAJ. 2012 Oct 16;184(15):1715
Date
Oct-16-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Biological - physiology
Biological Evolution
Female
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Male
Ontario
Sex ratio
Notes
Cites: CMAJ. 2012 Jun 12;184(9):E492-622508977
Cites: Am Nat. 2007 Nov;170(5):E112-2817926288
PubMed ID
23073675 View in PubMed
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Adaptive sex ratio variation in pre-industrial human (Homo sapiens) populations?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature203426
Source
Proc Biol Sci. 1998 Apr 7;265(1396):563-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-7-1998
Author
V. Lummaa
J. Merilä
A. Kause
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, University of Turku, Finland. virpi.lummaa@utu.fi
Source
Proc Biol Sci. 1998 Apr 7;265(1396):563-8
Date
Apr-7-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological
Birth rate
Female
Finland
History, 18th Century
History, 19th Century
Humans
Male
Models, Biological
Population Dynamics
Reproduction
Sex ratio
Sexual Behavior - history
Abstract
Sex allocation theory predicts that in a population with a biased operational sex ratio (OSR), parents will increase their fitness by adjusting the sex ratio of their progeny towards the rarer sex, until OSR has reached a level where the overproduction of either sex no longer increases a parent's probability of having grandchildren. Furthermore, in a monogamous mating system, a biased OSR is expected to lead to lowered mean fecundity among individuals of the more abundant sex. We studied the influence of OSR on the sex ratio of newborns and on the population birth rate using an extensive data set (n = 14,420 births) from pre-industrial (1775-1850) Finland. The overall effect of current OSR on sex ratio at birth was significant, and in the majority of the 21 parishes included in this study, more sons were produced when males were rarer than females. This suggests that humans adjusted the sex ratio of their offspring in response to the local OSR to maximize the reproductive success of their progeny. Birth rate and, presumably, also population growth rate increased when the sex ratio (males:females) among reproductive age classes approached equality. However, the strength of these patterns varied across the parishes, suggesting that factors other than OSR (e.g. socioeconomic or environmental factors may also have influenced the sex ratio at birth and the birth rate.
Notes
Cites: Am J Hum Genet. 1954 Jun;6(2):284-9213158334
Cites: Proc Biol Sci. 1996 Nov 22;263(1376):1475-808952090
Cites: Hereditas. 1972;71(2):195-2364680662
Cites: Science. 1976 Jan 23;191(4224):249-631108197
Cites: Science. 1977 Jul 15;197(4300):215-23327542
Cites: Nature. 1978 Mar 23;272(5651):349-50634359
Cites: Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1979 Sep 21;205(1161):567-8042061
Cites: Nature. 1982 Jul 1;298(5869):11-37088158
Cites: Q Rev Biol. 1986 Sep;61(3):339-743532167
Cites: J Theor Biol. 1990 Apr 23;143(4):555-642199736
Cites: Nature. 1991 May 2;351(6321):58-602027382
Cites: J Theor Biol. 1992 Mar 7;155(1):121-81619949
Cites: Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 1995 May;70(2):225-417605846
Cites: J Theor Biol. 1996 Jun 21;180(4):271-868776463
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Oct 15;93(21):11723-88876204
Cites: Heredity (Edinb). 1974 Oct;33(2):265-784531430
PubMed ID
9881467 View in PubMed
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[A deficit in women--a contributory reason for an imbalance in society]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature37310
Source
Nord Med. 1991;106(1):24-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
1991
Author
A. Forsdahl
Author Affiliation
Institutt for samfunnsmedisin, Universitetet i Tromsø.
Source
Nord Med. 1991;106(1):24-5
Date
1991
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Child
English Abstract
Female
Greenland
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Population
Scandinavia
Sex ratio
Women
Abstract
The author has carried out a comparison between the female/male ratio (x 100) in different age groups in the Nordic countries and Greenland. The ratio was much the same, about 95, up to the age 45-50 years. But there were two exceptions, the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Here the excess of males aged 20-49 years was much higher than in the other countries. In Greenland for this was mainly due to an immigration of adult males, and the female/male ratio was 75.4. Some possible influences on the society are discussed.
PubMed ID
1996229 View in PubMed
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The adult sex ratio and human population homeostasis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature40649
Source
S Afr Med J. 1981 Oct 24;60(17):666-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-24-1981
Author
J H Koeslag
Source
S Afr Med J. 1981 Oct 24;60(17):666-9
Date
Oct-24-1981
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Birth rate
Female
Fertility
Humans
Male
Mortality
Population Dynamics
Sex ratio
Sweden
Abstract
About 50% of Swedish infants born in 1750 survived to have children themselves, and when they did they produced about 4 babies per family. In 1970 nearly all infants born could be expected to survive to adulthood, and about 2 babies were produced per family. This matching of the fertility rate to the childhood mortality rate could be the result of changes in the adult sex ratio.
PubMed ID
7302717 View in PubMed
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Adverse reactions to nitrofurantoin. Analysis of 921 reports.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature245300
Source
Am J Med. 1980 Nov;69(5):733-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1980
Author
L. Holmberg
G. Boman
L E Böttiger
B. Eriksson
R. Spross
A. Wessling
Source
Am J Med. 1980 Nov;69(5):733-8
Date
Nov-1980
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Age Factors
Aged
Chronic Disease
Drug Hypersensitivity - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Liver Cirrhosis - chemically induced - epidemiology
Male
Nitrofurantoin - adverse effects
Pancytopenia - chemically induced - epidemiology
Polyneuropathies - chemically induced - epidemiology
Pulmonary Fibrosis - chemically induced - epidemiology
Sex ratio
Sweden
Abstract
Reports on adverse reactions to nitrofurantoin today are common in Sweden and constitute 10 to 12 percent of all incoming reports. We present an analysis of 921 reports of adverse reactions received by the Swedish Adverse Drug Reaction Committee during the period 1966--1976. The two largest groups consist of reports of acute pulmonary reactions (43 percent) and allergic reactions (42 percent). The remaining reports fall into any of four smaller groups, chronic pulmonary reactions, liver damage, blood dyscrasias or neuropathy. Acute pulmonary and acute allergic reactions in all aspects are very similar and carry the characteristics of an acute hypersensitivity reaction. The increasing number of reports--even in relation to sales figures--would be best explained by a continuous sensitization. Chronic pulmonary reactions (interstitial pneumonitis) afflict older patients, often after prolonged treatment with relatively small doses. We suggest that these reactions are elicited by a toxic mechanism. Seventy-one percent of all reactions were severe enough to cause the patient's hospitalization; only 1 percent was fatal. The risk of an adverse reaction varies with sex and age, increases with age and is higher in women than in men. The time has come for a re-evaluation of nitrofurantoin and its role in the treatment of urinary tract infections.
PubMed ID
7435512 View in PubMed
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Aetiological factors and prevalence of severe mental retardation in children in a Swedish municipality: the possible role of consanguinity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature33687
Source
Dev Med Child Neurol. 1998 Sep;40(9):608-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1998
Author
E. Fernell
Author Affiliation
Department of Paediatrics, Huddinge University Hospital, Sweden.
Source
Dev Med Child Neurol. 1998 Sep;40(9):608-11
Date
Sep-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Child, Preschool
Consanguinity
Cross-Sectional Studies
Down Syndrome - epidemiology - etiology - genetics
Female
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Mental Retardation - epidemiology - etiology - genetics
Risk factors
Sex ratio
Suburban Population - statistics & numerical data
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The prevalence of severe mental retardation (SMR) was studied in one of the 24 suburban municipalities in Stockholm. The study area had a high proportion of non-European nationals. The study population comprised 14138 children born between 1979 and 1992 who resided in this municipality on the census day, 31 December 1995. The total prevalence of SMR was 4.5 per 1000, being 3.7 per 1000 and 5.9 per 1000 in the European and in the non-European population, respectively. The majority of cases (66%) had a definite prenatal origin. Down syndrome was the cause in 20%. Six families (10%) had at least two children with SMR. It was concluded that the prevalence was higher than in previous Swedish studies. Many cases were attributed to genetic factors. Consanguineous marriages were assumed to be a factor of importance in the distribution of aetiologies. Demographic differences between areas in Sweden must be considered when planning habilitation services.
PubMed ID
9766738 View in PubMed
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[Age and sex characteristics of tuberculosis incidence among urban population during the period 1959-1971]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature42675
Source
Vrach Delo. 1975 May;(5):11-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1975

[Age-sex characteristics of tuberculosis incidence among the population of Vinnitsa]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature42317
Source
Probl Tuberk. 1976 Apr;(4):9-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1976

Alzheimer's disease: preliminary study of spatial distribution at birth place.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature212455
Source
Soc Sci Med. 1996 Mar;42(6):871-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1996
Author
H. Jean
J F Emard
J P Thouez
L. Houde
Y. Robitaille
J. Mathieu
C. Boily
N. Daoud
M. Beaudry
A. Cholette
R. Bouchard
F. Veilleux
D. Gauvreau
Author Affiliation
Project IMAGE, Centre hospitalier Côte-des-Neiges, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
Source
Soc Sci Med. 1996 Mar;42(6):871-8
Date
Mar-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alzheimer Disease - epidemiology - etiology - genetics
Environmental Exposure
Female
Humans
Male
Models, Statistical
Odds Ratio
Pedigree
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Quebec - epidemiology
Risk factors
Sex ratio
Social Environment
Abstract
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder which is characterized by a progressive loss of memory and the alteration of cognitive functions. At least three chromosomal segments have been associated with early-onset AD in genetic linkage studies. These results argue for a certain degree of heterogeneity in the genetic origin of some forms of AD, although environmental risk factors cannot be ruled out in late-onset AD. In this preliminary study, we analyzed the geographical distribution of the birth places of a sample of 235 AD cases born in a defined region of Quebec (Canada), between 1895 and 1935. We wished to test the hypothesis that risk factors acting at, or around birth place and time play a role in the etiology of AD. The field of study was divided into rural and urban areas. A reference population of live births was used to compute a measure of odds ratio (OR). The OR results showed a statistically significant excess of AD cases in the rural area as compared to the reference population. When stratified for sex, the OR results showed a global excess of female AD cases in both the rural and the urban areas. For men, only the urban area presented a statistically significant deficit. We also analyzed the structures of the genealogical kinships of the rural and urban sub-groups. Although AD cases from the rural sub-group were more closely related to each other than those from the urban one, removal of the kin pairs from the OR analysis seemed to have little effect on the rural/urban distribution of cases. Therefore, the OR results would not appear to be due primarily to a difference in the kinship structures of the two sub-groups. This could mean that some risk factors for AD afflict women more strongly than men, the effect being different depending on the urban or rural origin. However, potential biases such as a higher rate of report for women, differential migration between birth places or a differential mortality ratio between sexes could produce spurious results in the direction of what we have observed in this preliminary study.
PubMed ID
8778999 View in PubMed
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Ambient temperature predicts sex ratios and male longevity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87354
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Feb 12;105(6):2244-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-12-2008
Author
Catalano Ralph
Bruckner Tim
Smith Kirk R
Author Affiliation
School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7360, USA.
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Feb 12;105(6):2244-7
Date
Feb-12-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Longevity
Male
Sex ratio
Sweden - epidemiology
Temperature
Abstract
The theory that natural selection has conserved mechanisms by which women subjected to environmental stressors abort frail male fetuses implies that climate change may affect sex ratio at birth and male longevity. Using time series methods, we find that cold ambient temperatures during gestation predict lower secondary sex ratios and longer life span of males in annual birth cohorts composed of Danes, Finns, Norwegians, and Swedes born between 1878 (earliest year with complete life tables) and 1914 (last birth cohort for which male life span can be estimated). We conclude that ambient temperature affects the characteristics of human populations by influencing who survives gestation, a heretofore unrecognized effect of climate on humanity.
PubMed ID
18250336 View in PubMed
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401 records – page 1 of 41.