The aim of this study is to examine the association between bullying behaviour at the age of 8 and becoming a mother under the age of 20. This birth cohort study included 2,867 Finnish girls at baseline in 1989. Register-based follow-up data on births was collected until the end of 2001. Information, both on the main exposure and outcome, was available for 2,507 girls. Both bullies and victims had an increased risk of becoming a teenage mother independent of family-related risk factors. When controlled for childhood psychopathology, however, the association remained significant for bullies (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.1) and bully-victims (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.05-3.2), but not for pure victims. Reports of bullying and victimisation from the girls themselves, their parents and their teachers were all associated with becoming a teenage mother independent of each other. There is a predictive association between being a bully in childhood and becoming a mother in adolescence. It may be useful to target bullies for teenage pregnancy prevention.
Comment In: Evid Based Ment Health. 2011 Aug;14(3):6421764863
Research is an essential component of effective, evidence-based nursing practice. Limited scientific data have been published on Canadian Aboriginals, and even less information is available on HIV prevention efforts aimed at Aboriginal youth. The need for more research on HIV and AIDS among Aboriginals, and especially Aboriginal youth, is highlighted throughout the article as a means to improving prevention interventions for this vulnerable population. At the same time, insights gained from a culture-sensitive, HIV/AIDS educational program that targeted a group of Aboriginal adolescents from a local First Nations community in Ontario are discussed. Implications for future HIV/AIDS peer-based prevention efforts using the train-the-trainer technique are also considered.
We examined the effectiveness of community-level HIV prevention programming for men who have sex with men.
We used multilevel methods to examine unprotected intercourse by bisexual men (n = 1016) with male and female partners in geographic regions with and without HIV prevention programming.
Men living in geographic regions with HIV prevention programming had significantly less frequent unprotected homosexual intercourse with both casual and regular partners. In contrast, no differences were observed for unprotected heterosexual intercourse.
This study provides evidence supporting the effectiveness of community-level HIV prevention programming and the need for its broader implementation. The study also demonstrates the suitability of multilevel methods for examining the effectiveness of community-level public health programs.
Cites: Med J Aust. 1989 Sep 18;151(6):309-142593940
HIV prevention, by intervening within social networks, is potentially important but highly understudied. Approaches that systematically identify, train, and enlist known social influence leaders to advise members of their own networks in risk reduction constitute ways to reach hidden population segments, persons who are distrustful of authorities but trust their peers, and those who cannot be reached through traditional professionally delivered counseling. This article illustrates and provides evaluation data on a program that recruited 14 intact social networks of young men who have sex with men (YMSM) in St. Petersburg, Russia, and Sofia, Bulgaria. Sociometric measures were used to identify the social leader of each network, and baseline risk assessment measures were administered to all members of each social network. The sociometrically determined leaders then attended a six-session group program that provided training and guidance in how to carry out theory-based and tailored HIV prevention conversations with members of their own social networks. Four months after leaders completed the program, all network members were readministered risk assessment measures. Pre- to postintervention data revealed that the program produced: (1) increases in the level and comfort with which network members talked about AIDS prevention topics in their daily conversations; (2) increased network-level AIDS risk reduction knowledge and improved risk reduction norm perceptions, attitudes, behavioral intentions, and self-efficacy; and (3) increased condom use levels among network members. Although not a controlled, randomized trial, these program evaluation findings strongly support the feasibility of social network-level HIV prevention approaches.
Following myocardial infarction (MI), patients often have unanswered questions about resuming sexual activity. Coronary care nurses can play an important role in counselling. However, this sensitive area is frequently neglected in nursing practice. This article discusses patient and nurse perceptions of such discussions and explores ways to increase nurses' awareness, so that they might offer sexual counselling to patients post-MI. Health professionals representing 18 Swedish coronary care units answered two open-ended questions, and their answers were analysed and categorized by content. Two main categories were identified: 'Difficulties and challenges' and 'Future needs'. These two categories were further divided into sub-categories respectively: 'Information flow', 'Patients' responsibility', 'Information to partners' and 'Cooperating with other experts'; and 'Preparing information tools' and 'Highlighting sexual issues'. It was found that when sexual concerns arise, contact with medical social workers, urologists and gynaecologists is scarce. It was also found that the current written information is insufficient. Responsibility currently falls on patients to ensure that both they and their partners have been adequately informed regarding any sexual concerns. It is essential that health professionals are well-educated and have the necessary skills to inform patients and their partners about sexual issues following MI.
We describe the prevalence of behaviors that put American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) high school students at risk for teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and the relationships among race/ethnicity and these behaviors.
We analyzed merged 2007 and 2009 data from the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a biennial, self-administered, school-based survey of US students in grades 9-12 (N = 27,912). Prevalence estimates and logistic regression, controlling for sex and grade, were used to examine the associations between race/ethnicity, and substance use, and sexual risk behaviors.
Of the 26 variables studied, the adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were higher among AI/AN than White students for 18 variables (ranging from 1.4 to 2.3), higher among AI/AN than Black students for 13 variables (ranging from 1.4 to 4.2), and higher among AI/AN than Hispanic students for 5 variables (ranging from 1.4 to 1.5). Odds were lower among AI/AN than Black students for many of the sexual risk-related behaviors.
The data suggest it is necessary to develop targeted, adolescent-specific interventions aimed at reducing behaviors that put AI/AN high school students at risk for teen pregnancy, STI/HIV, and other health conditions.
Existing sexual health programs have not significantly reduced teen pregnancies or sexually transmitted diseases. A more creative approach is needed.
An assessment of 539 teens in one Ontario city was conducted to identify knowledge about and use of birth control, comfort in discussing sexual health, and preferred sites, providers and methods of service delivery.
Knowledge of, and comfort discussing, birth control was not associated with frequency of use but was associated with grade. Adolescents were less comfortable discussing sexual health with teachers than health professionals. Over time, comfort increased with health professionals, but not teachers. Sexually active teens reported willingness to attend mall-based clinics.
Using birth control appears to be maturational given its association with grade. Since teens were consistently less comfortable with teachers, providing sexual health services in schools is likely ineffective. Teens may respond to clinics in creative settings such as malls.