We assessed the familial occurrence of Hirschsprung's disease from 224 probands born in Denmark after 1959. Probands who were still alive received a mailed questionnaire, and medical reports for the probands and their relatives with suspected Hirschsprung's disease were examined. The diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease required a histologically verified biopsy or surgical colonic specimens, and exclusion of a secondary causes for Hirschsprung's disease. Familial occurrence was seen in 11 families. Ten first-degree, two third-degree and one fifth-degree relatives had Hirschsprung's disease. Both short segment agangliosis (the sigmoid colon or below) and long segment agangliosis (above the sigmoid colon) occurred in five of the 11 families, implying that the etiology of Hirschsprung's disease with short and long segment agangliosis is the same. Compared with the general population, the first-degree relatives of the 224 probands had a minimum of a 93-fold increased risk of Hirschsprung's disease. This strongly suggests that genetic factors play a role in Hirschsprung's disease.
Trends in suicide mortality in Europe from 1950 to 2009 were studied.
Data on 4,777,113 suicides in addition to the data on population were extracted from the WHO Mortality Database.
In Europe, there was an increase in suicide mortality during the 1980s and the 1990s, followed by a decrease. The suicide mortality of Finnish men has decreased from the highest rate in the 1950s to the ninth place in the 2000s. In contrast, the suicide mortality of Finnish women is currently the second highest in Europe.
Continuous work and research are needed to enhance suicide prevention at the regional level.
Macular hole is a retinal disease primarily affecting elderly women. Its overall prevalence in the Danish population is estimated to be 0.14%. The majority of cases are unilateral. The fully developed macular hole evolves through a series of stages starting with an impending hole. About half of impending macular holes regress spontaneously. The remaining half progress to full thickness macular holes. In a patient with a macular hole in one eye, the risk of development of a macular hole in the fellow eye is less than 2% if posterior vitreous detachment is present. If the posterior vitreous is attached, the risk is approximately 15%. If an impending hole is found in the other eye, the risk rises to 50%.
Macular hole surgery is able to close full thickness macular holes in approximately 90% of cases. Visual acuity of 20/50 or better can be obtained in approximately half of patients with recent onset of symptoms. Complications include retinal detachment, endophthalmitis, late reopening of an initially successfully closed hole and retinal pigment epithelial abnormalities. Retinal detachment should be expected in less than 5% of cases.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the incidence of transsexualism in Sweden has been stable over the period of the three decades sex reassignment has been permitted by law in Sweden and whether there has been a change over time in the sex ratio of those requesting sex reassignment surgery (SRS). The incidence and sex ratio of transsexualism were calculated on the basis of the total number of applications for sex reassignment submitted to the National Board of Health and Welfare between July 1972 and June 2002. The frequency data were then analyzed in relation to the number of SRSs performed, age at the time SRS was requested, and the proportion of applicants of foreign origin. The results showed that the incidence of transsexualism was not stable during the study period of three decades. The sex ratio changed from almost 1:1 in the late 1960s to almost 2:1 in favor of male-to-female (MF) transsexuals in the 1990s. The number of SRSs performed rose considerably after the mid- 1980s. On average, MF transsexuals are now 6 years older than female-to-male (FM) transsexuals when they apply for SRS, and MF transsexuals are currently about 8 years older at the time of application than they were 20 years ago. The proportion of applications from applicants of foreign origin increased during the 1990s.