The association between exposure during handling of sewage and compost and the serum concentration of inflammatory biomarkers was studied.
A total of 44 workers exposed to sewage dust, 47 workers exposed to compost dust and 38 referents from the administrative staff participated. Microbial aerosols were collected by personal inhalable samplers. The concentrations of bacterial cells, spores from fungi and bacteria (actinomycetes) and endotoxins were determined by fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy and the Limulus assay. Fibrinogen, D-dimer, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and IL-6 were determined by ELISA and C-reactive protein (CRP) by HS-MicroCRP assay in blood samples collected post-shift.
The exposure to dust ranged from 0.02 to 11 mg/m(3), endotoxins from 1 to 3160 EU/m(3) and bacteria from 0 to 209 × 10(6) cells/m(3). Fungal (0-41 × 10(6) spores/m(3)) and actinomycetes spores (0-590 × 10(6) actinomycetes spores/m(3)) were observed only at compost plants. The exposed workers had significantly higher fibrinogen (arithmetic mean 3.3 mg/ml) and CRP (geometric mean 1.5 mg/L) compared to the referents (2.8 and 1.0 mg/L, respectively). The serum concentration of CRP was negatively associated with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) in % of predicted. Exposure to inhalable dust and bacteria was positively associated with the serum concentration of ICAM-1.
This study suggests that exposure to bacteria and dust when handling sewage and compost may initiate an inflammation shown by an increase in serum concentration of ICAM-1. The higher concentrations of fibrinogen and CRP in exposed workers compared to the referents may reflect a low-grade systemic inflammation.
OBJECTIVES: To study the cancer incidence in a cohort of Swedish sewage workers. An increased incidence of cancer of the stomach, the kidney and the nervous system in this cohort was previously reported. This new analysis reports on 9 more years of follow up. METHODS: The study is an analysis of a cohort of all 711 employees at 17 Swedish sewage plants employed for at least for 1 year during the years 1965-86. Assessment of exposures was performed by classification of work tasks. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs), and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. RESULTS: The total cancer incidence was not significantly increased (SIR = 1.2, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.5) but the incidence of prostate cancer was (SIR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.5), and based on two cases only, there seemed to be a significant increase of cancer of the nose and the nasal sinuses (SIR = 12, 95% CI 1.5 to 44). The incidence of stomach cancer was also increased (SIR = 2.3, 95% CI 0.99 to 4.5). There was no relation between cancer incidence and level of sewage exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Sewage workers did not have an increased risk of cancer, and the increased risk estimates for some specific cancer sites were not conclusive.
Data on emergent epidemiological analysis of the cholera outbreak in Kazan are presented. A version of the cholera focus emergence was confirmed, namely water route of transmission as a result of bathing in a water reservoir where sewage waters had penetrated. The outbreak had local and acute character. The complex of cholera control interventions aimed at localization and liquidation of the focus proved to be effective.
Problems associated with sewage treatment and human wastes at high latitudes are briefly reviewed. In view of the fact that E. coli and other faecal bacteria can survive in the snow and the coastal waters of polar regions, several methods of how to deal with sewage outfalls in the Arctic and Antarctic are compared and discussed. Some consequences of raw sewage on the health of captive populations of a variety of Antarctic invertebrates and fish are described. Locomotion and respiration appear to be most affected. However, gaps, both in understanding the biological impact of human sewage on polar ecosystems and in finding optimal solutions for the disposal and treatment of the wastes generated by people who live in polar settlements, unfortunately still remain.
To estimate environmental burden of mercury from dental clinics, a survey was conducted in 1993 at dental clinics in northern part of Sweden. Factors regarding amalgam separators, maintenance and disposal of collected sludge, age of clinics, cleaning of waste pipes, and sorting and handling of amalgam contaminated products were investigated. The result showed that many were not familiar with maintenance of the amalgam separator. A majority, 68%, were working in clinics older than 10 years, but only 9% reported that waste pipes had been cleaned or changed. Classification of amalgam contaminated products as high-risk and low-risk waste differed a lot, as well as handling of waste products. The result shows that there is need for more information and attention to all individuals working in Dental Care on how to reduce environmental burden of mercury from dental clinics.
The food- and waterborne disease situation in Russia requires special attention. Poor quality of centralized water supplies and sewage systems, biological and chemical contamination of drinking water, as well as contamination of food products, promote widespread infectious diseases, significantly exceeding nationwide rates in the population living in the two-thirds of Russian northern territories.
The general aim was to assess the levels of food- and waterborne diseases in selected regions of Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East (for the period 2000-2011), and to compare disease levels among regions and with national levels in Russia.
This study is the first comparative assessment of the morbidity in these fields of the population of 18 selected regions of Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, using official statistical sources. The incidences of infectious and parasitic food- and waterborne diseases among the general population (including indigenous peoples) have been analyzed in selected regions (per 100,000 of population, averaged for 2000-2011).
Among compulsory registered infectious and parasitic diseases, there were high rates and widespread incidences in selected regions of shigellosis, yersiniosis, hepatitis A, tularaemia, giardiasis, enterobiasis, ascariasis, diphyllobothriasis, opistorchiasis, echinococcosis and trichinellosis.
Incidences of infectious and parasitic food- and waterborne diseases in the general population of selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East (2000-2011) are alarmingly high. Parallel solutions must be on the agenda, including improvement of sanitary conditions of cities and settlements in the regions, modernization of the water supply and of the sewage system. Provision and monitoring of the quality of the drinking water, a reform of the general healthcare system and the epidemiological surveillance (including gender-divided statistics), enhancement of laboratory diagnostics and the introduction of preventive actions are urgently needed.
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72. doi: 10.3402/ijch.v72i0.2153023940840
Despite the noteworthy genotoxic potency of many industrial wastewaters, the genotoxic hazard posed to the downstream ecosystem and its associated biota will be determined by genotoxic loading. Municipal wastewaters, although ranking low in potency, can achieve loading values that are several orders of magnitude greater than those of most industries. Although these wastewaters are generally mixtures of wastes from several different sources, the volumetric proportion of the daily discharge that is of industrial origin rarely exceeds 30%. Genotoxicity calculations for the Montreal Urban Community (MUC) municipal wastewater treatment facility indicate that over 90% of the genotoxic loading (31.1 kg benzo(a)pyrene equivalents per day) is nonindustrial in origin. Moreover, a mass balance of surface water genotoxicity for St. Lawrence river at Montreal indicates that over 85% of the total contributions from the Montreal region are nonindustrial in origin. Additional calculations for the Great Lakes, and other rivers throughout the world, provide further support of a strong relationship between surface water genotoxicity and population. Despite some information about physical/chemical properties, the identity of the putative genotoxins in municipal wastewaters and surface waters remains a mystery. Likely candidates include potent genotoxins, such as N-nitroso compounds and aromatic amines, known to be present in human sanitary wastes, as well as genotoxic PAHs known to be present in many municipal wastewaters. Calculations based on literature data indicate that human sanitary wastes may be able to account for a substantial fraction (4-70%) of the nonindustrial loading from municipal wastewaters. Similar calculations suggest that pyrogenic PAHs that enter municipal wastewaters via surface runoff can only account for a small fraction (
Due to wide production and use of surface-active substances (SAS)-detergents in various branches of economy, they became spread chemical factors of environment. A scheme was worked out of possible migration of SAS in environmental objects in conditions of irrigation of agricultural land by sewage waters. It is suggested that detailed studies should be directed with the purpose of reducing of contamination of human environment.
This project directly and empirically measured the level of gastrointestinal (GI) illness related to the consumption of tapwater prepared from sewage-contaminated surface waters and meeting current water quality criteria.
A randomized intervention trial was carried out; 299 eligible households were supplied with domestic water filters (reverse-osmosis) that eliminate microbial and chemical contaminants from their water, and 307 households were left with their usual tapwater without a filter. The GI symptomatology was evaluated by means of a family health diary maintained prospectively by all study families over a 15-month period.
The estimated annual incidence of GI illness was 0.76 among tapwater drinkers compared with 0.50 among filtered water drinkers (p less than 0.01). These findings were consistently observed in all population subgroups.
It is estimated that 35% of the reported GI illnesses among the tapwater drinkers were water-related and preventable. Our results raise questions about the adequacy of current standards of drinking water quality to prevent water-borne endemic gastrointestinal illness.
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Conditions favouring the sharp increase of risk to be infected with cercariasis (caused by trematode cercariae Trichobilharzia ocellata Brumpt, 1931, Schistosomatidae) were examined in Moscow region (Russian Federation). Main factors of worsening the cercariasis situation are as follows. a) The increase of environment pollution by everyday wastages and the overgrowing with macrophytes in internal water basins of Moscow, that makes favourable conditions for the development of molluscs, which are intermediate hosts (mainly Lymnaea ovata and L. auricularia). b) The sharp increase of number of ducks (mainly mallard Anas platyrhyncos), which are final hosts, that is a result of bird escaping from farms (approximately in 60-70-th) and of high adaptation of these birds to city water basins. The detailed estimation of the cercariasis situation in 89 water basins of different types in Moscow and recreation zone was carried out. Examples of charting the zones with different risk degree of cercariasis infection are given. It is stated that at current time the cercariasis became a significant and widely distributed medical problem, which is most important in cities (including such large one as Moscow). Prophylaxis recommendations are proposed.