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A 1-Year Quantitative Survey of Noro-, Adeno-, Human Boca-, and Hepatitis E Viruses in Raw and Secondarily Treated Sewage from Two Plants in Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature272273
Source
Food Environ Virol. 2015 Sep;7(3):213-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2015
Author
M. Myrmel
H. Lange
E. Rimstad
Source
Food Environ Virol. 2015 Sep;7(3):213-23
Date
Sep-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adenoviridae - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Environmental monitoring
Genotype
Hepatitis E virus - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Human bocavirus - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Humans
Molecular Sequence Data
Norovirus - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Norway
Phylogeny
Seasons
Sewage - virology
Water Pollution
Water Purification - instrumentation
Abstract
A study of enteric viruses in raw and treated sewage from two secondary treatment plants, which received sewage from Oslo city (plant A) and small municipalities in Hedmark county in Norway (plant B), showed high levels of noro-, adeno-, and bocavirus throughout the year. A seasonal variation was observed for adeno- and GII norovirus with higher levels during winter and bocavirus that had more positive samples during winter. The virus concentrations in raw sewage were comparable in the two plants, with medians (log10 genome copies per liter) of 6.1, 6.3, 6.0, and 4.5 for noro GI, noro GII, adeno-, and bocavirus, respectively. The level of hepatitis E virus was not determined as it was below the limit of quantification. The mean log10 virus reduction was 0.55 (plant A) and 1.44 (plant B) with the highest reduction found in the plant with longer hydraulic retention time. The adenoviruses were dominantly serotype 41, while serotype 12 appeared sporadically. Of the 102 raw and treated sewage samples that were tested, eight were positive for hepatitis E virus of which four were from treated sewage. Two of the four obtained gene sequences from hepatitis E virus originated from the rural sewage samples and showed high similarity with a genotype 3 strain of hepatitis E virus detected in local piglets. Two other hepatitis E virus sequences obtained from urban sewage samples showed high similarities with genotype 3 strains isolated from urban sewage in Spain and a human genotype 1 isolate from India. The study gives information on the levels of noroviruses in raw and treated sewage, which is valuable to risk assessment, information indicating that some infections with hepatitis E viruses in Norway have a regional origin and that human bocavirus 2 and 3 are prevalent in the Norwegian population.
PubMed ID
26003323 View in PubMed
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Abdominal symptoms among sewage workers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature10795
Source
Occup Med (Lond). 1998 May;48(4):251-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1998
Author
L. Friis
L. Agréus
C. Edling
Author Affiliation
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden. Lennart.Friis@arbmed.uas.se
Source
Occup Med (Lond). 1998 May;48(4):251-3
Date
May-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diarrhea - epidemiology
Gastrointestinal Diseases - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Nausea - epidemiology
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology
Peptic Ulcer - epidemiology
Prevalence
Risk factors
Sanitary Engineering
Sewage
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of abdominal symptoms and the abdominal medical history among sewage workers. 142 male sewage workers and 137 male referents in 11 Swedish municipalities were addressed with a questionnaire about abdominal symptoms, medical history, occupational history and life style factors. The sewage workers suffered less from nausea [adjusted odds ratio (adjOR) = 0.18, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 0.04-0.84] than the referents. There was no significant difference in the three months prevalence of diarrhoea (adjOR = 1.7, 95% Cl = 0.79-3.4), dyspepsia (adjOR = 0.85, 95% Cl = 0.49-1.5) or irritable bowel syndrome (adjOR = 1.4, 95% Cl = 0.53-3.5). The sewage workers were affected more often by peptic ulcers during their present jobs than the referents, although the increased risk was not significant (adjOR = 1.4, 95% Cl = 0.31-6.1). The odds ratios were adjusted for age, use of tobacco products and alcohol consumption. The conclusion of this study was that sewage workers are less affected by nausea than comparable referents.
PubMed ID
9800423 View in PubMed
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The activated sludge ecosystem contains a core community of abundant organisms.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature275609
Source
ISME J. 2016 Jan;10(1):11-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2016
Author
Aaron M Saunders
Mads Albertsen
Jes Vollertsen
Per H Nielsen
Source
ISME J. 2016 Jan;10(1):11-20
Date
Jan-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bacteria - classification - genetics - growth & development - isolation & purification
Denmark
Ecosystem
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S - genetics
Sewage - microbiology
Waste Water - microbiology
Abstract
Understanding the microbial ecology of a system requires that the observed population dynamics can be linked to their metabolic functions. However, functional characterization is laborious and the choice of organisms should be prioritized to those that are frequently abundant (core) or transiently abundant, which are therefore putatively make the greatest contribution to carbon turnover in the system. We analyzed the microbial communities in 13 Danish wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal in consecutive years and a single plant periodically over 6 years, using Illumina sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA amplicons of the V4 region. The plants contained a core community of 63 abundant genus-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that made up 68% of the total reads. A core community consisting of abundant OTUs was also observed within the incoming wastewater to three plants. The net growth rate for individual OTUs was quantified using mass balance, and it was found that 10% of the total reads in the activated sludge were from slow or non-growing OTUs, and that their measured abundance was primarily because of immigration with the wastewater. Transiently abundant organisms were also identified. Among them the genus Nitrotoga (class Betaproteobacteria) was the most abundant putative nitrite oxidizer in a number of activated sludge plants, which challenges previous assumptions that Nitrospira (phylum Nitrospirae) are the primary nitrite-oxidizers in activated sludge systems with nutrient removal.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26262816 View in PubMed
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Acute infectious diarrheal illness in a First Nations community in northern Manitoba, Canada: Epidemiology and the impact of water, sanitation, and housing

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature256677
Source
Page 46 in S. Chatwood, P. Orr and Tiina Ikaheimo, eds. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Canada, July 11-16, 2009. Securing the IPY Legacy: from Research to Action. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2010; 69 (Suppl 7).
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Date
2010
questionnaires were collected. Mapping of water, sewage and housing infrastructure was performed. Microbiologic analysis of stool identified Bacillus cereus (5.8o/o of samples) and Campylobacter jejuni (5.8%) as the most common bacterial pathogens; Norovirus (19.7%) was the most common viral agent. Rotavirus
  1 document  
Author
Hayward P
Martin B
Hazelton P
Rubinstein E
Orr P
Author Affiliation
University of British Columbia
Source
Page 46 in S. Chatwood, P. Orr and Tiina Ikaheimo, eds. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Canada, July 11-16, 2009. Securing the IPY Legacy: from Research to Action. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2010; 69 (Suppl 7).
Date
2010
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Illness
Water
Sanitation
Housing
First Nations
Canada
Diarrhea
Pathogens
Sewage
Notes
Part of Abstracts: Oral Presentations. Chapter 1. Public Health Perspectives.
Documents
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The agricultural use of municipal sewage.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature240307
Source
Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1984 Aug;62(8):1049-55
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1984
Author
D L Hamilton
R P Brockman
J E Knipfel
Source
Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1984 Aug;62(8):1049-55
Date
Aug-1984
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agriculture
Animals
Canada
Cattle
Cereals - analysis
Fertilizers - toxicity
Humans
Metals - analysis
Poaceae
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Sewage
Sheep
Soil - analysis
Swine
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
The reuse of municipal sewage for agricultural purposes is becoming more prevalent. The literature concerning the impact of this practice is reviewed. It is readily apparent that agricultural reuse of municipal sewage is preferable to other common methods of disposal both from the point of view of ecological influence and economical waste utilization. There is a need to establish guidelines for the agricultural use of municipal sewage which will serve the variable conditions found in Canada and meet the public health concerns associated with an extensive agricultural use.
PubMed ID
6091855 View in PubMed
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Airway inflammation among compost workers exposed to actinomycetes spores.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature271518
Source
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2015;22(2):253-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Kari Kulvik Heldal
Lene Madsø
Wijnand Eduard
Source
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2015;22(2):253-8
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Actinobacteria - chemistry
Adult
Aerosols - toxicity
Air Pollutants, Occupational - toxicity
Biomarkers - blood
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Occupational Exposure
Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein A - blood
Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein D - blood
Respiratory Hypersensitivity - epidemiology - microbiology
Sewage
Spores, Bacterial - chemistry
Uteroglobin - blood
Abstract
To study the associations between exposure to bioaerosols and work-related symptoms, lung function and biomarkers of airway inflammation in compost workers.
Personal full-shift exposure measurements were performed on 47 workers employed at five windrow plants (n=20) and five reactor plants (n=27). Samples were analyzed for endotoxins, bacteria, fungal and actinomycetes spores. Health examinations were performed on workers and 37 controls before and after work on the day exposure was measured. The examinations included symptoms recorded by questionnaire, lung function by spirometry and nasal dimensions by acoustic rhinometry (AR). The pneumoproteins CC16, SP-D and SP-A were measured in a blood sample drawn at the end of the day.
The levels of endotoxins (median 3 EU/m(3), range 0-730 EU/m(3)) and actinomycetes spores (median 0.2 ? 10(6) spores/m(3), range 0-590 ? 10(6) spores/m(3)) were significantly higher in reactor plants compared to windrow plants. However, windrow composting workers reported more symptoms than reactor composting workers, probably due to use of respiratory protection. Exposure-response relationships between actinomycetes spores exposure and respiratory effects, found as cough and nose irritation during a shift, was significantly increased (OR 4.3, 95% CI 1.1-16, OR 6.1, 95% CI 1.5-25, respectively, p
PubMed ID
26094519 View in PubMed
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Alaskan Water and Sanitation Retrospective, 1970-2005.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301420
Source
United States Arctic Research Commission. 22 pages.
Publication Type
Report
Date
February 2015
and Disadvantages of Decentralized Water and Sanitation Systems .................. 12 Water Systems (Delivery/Distribution) ....................................................................................................... 12 Sewage Disposal Systems
  1 document  
Author
Alaska Rural Water and Sanitation Working Group
Source
United States Arctic Research Commission. 22 pages.
Date
February 2015
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Report
File Size
824169
Keywords
Alaska
Buckland
Mekoryuk
Water delivery and distribution
Sewage disposal systems
Abstract
The purpose of this retrospective is to inform the water and sanitation industry and the general public about technologies deployed in rural Alaskan villages between ~1970 and 2005. We indicate, per interviewee input, why the majority failed on a technical level or failed to provide adequate water on an as-used basis to improve health outcomes. This retrospective will supplement prior, and often meager, documentation of unsuccessful approaches to water and sanitation in Alaska, as both a cautionary tale and as a benchmark against which progress can be made.
Documents

watersan_retrospective_v2_6-15.pdf

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Alternative waste residue materials for passive in situ prevention of sulfide-mine tailings oxidation: a field evaluation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257398
Source
J Hazard Mater. 2014 Feb 28;267:245-54
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-28-2014
Author
Peter Nason
Raymond H Johnson
Clara Neuschütz
Lena Alakangas
Björn Öhlander
Author Affiliation
Division of Geosciences and Waste Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, SE-971 87 Luleå, Sweden. Electronic address: peter.nason@ltu.se.
Source
J Hazard Mater. 2014 Feb 28;267:245-54
Date
Feb-28-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Coal Ash - chemistry
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Industrial Waste - analysis
Metals - analysis - chemistry
Mining
Oxidation-Reduction
Sewage - analysis
Soil Pollutants - analysis
Sulfides - chemistry
Sweden
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
Novel solutions for sulfide-mine tailings remediation were evaluated in field-scale experiments on a former tailings repository in northern Sweden. Uncovered sulfide-tailings were compared to sewage-sludge biosolid amended tailings over 2 years. An application of a 0.2m single-layer sewage-sludge amendment was unsuccessful at preventing oxygen ingress to underlying tailings. It merely slowed the sulfide-oxidation rate by 20%. In addition, sludge-derived metals (Cu, Ni, Fe, and Zn) migrated and precipitated at the tailings-to-sludge interface. By using an additional 0.6m thick fly-ash sealing layer underlying the sewage sludge layer, a solution to mitigate oxygen transport to the underlying tailings and minimize sulfide-oxidation was found. The fly-ash acted as a hardened physical barrier that prevented oxygen diffusion and provided a trap for sludge-borne metals. Nevertheless, the biosolid application hampered the application, despite the advances in the effectiveness of the fly-ash layer, as sludge-borne nitrate leached through the cover system into the underlying tailings, oxidizing pyrite. This created a 0.3m deep oxidized zone in 6-years. This study highlights that using sewage sludge in unconventional cover systems is not always a practical solution for the remediation of sulfide-bearing mine tailings to mitigate against sulfide weathering and acid rock drainage formation.
PubMed ID
24462894 View in PubMed
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An extensive gastroenteritis outbreak after drinking-water contamination by sewage effluent, Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature140788
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2011 Jul;139(7):1105-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2011
Author
J. Laine
E. Huovinen
M J Virtanen
M. Snellman
J. Lumio
P. Ruutu
E. Kujansuu
R. Vuento
T. Pitkänen
I. Miettinen
J. Herrala
O. Lepistö
J. Antonen
J. Helenius
M-L Hänninen
L. Maunula
J. Mustonen
M. Kuusi
Author Affiliation
National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki and Kuopio, Finland.
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2011 Jul;139(7):1105-13
Date
Jul-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Child
Child, Preschool
Disease Outbreaks
Drinking Water - microbiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Gastroenteritis - epidemiology - etiology - microbiology
Humans
Infant
Male
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Sewage - microbiology
Young Adult
Abstract
An inappropriate cross-connection between sewage- and drinking-water pipelines contaminated tap water in a Finnish town, resulting in an extensive waterborne gastroenteritis outbreak in this developed country. According to a database and a line-list, altogether 1222 subjects sought medical care as a result of this exposure. Seven pathogens were found in patient samples of those who sought treatment. To establish the true disease burden from this exposure, we undertook a population-based questionnaire investigation with a control population, infrequently used to study waterborne outbreaks. The study covered three areas, contaminated and uncontaminated parts of the town and a control town. An estimated 8453 residents fell ill during the outbreak, the excess number of illnesses being 6501. Attack rates were 53% [95% confidence interval (CI) 49.5-56.4] in the contaminated area, 15.6% (95% CI 13.1-18.5) in the uncontaminated area and 6.5% (95% CI 4.8-8.8) in the control population. Using a control population allowed us to differentiate baseline morbidity from the observed morbidity caused by the water contamination, thus enabling a more accurate estimate of the disease burden of this outbreak.
PubMed ID
20843387 View in PubMed
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[An opisthorchiasis epidemic in Ukraine]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature34270
Source
Lik Sprava. 1997 May-Jun;(3):146-9
Publication Type
Article
Author
I M Loktieva
Source
Lik Sprava. 1997 May-Jun;(3):146-9
Language
Ukrainian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Animals
Child
Disease Outbreaks - statistics & numerical data
Disease Reservoirs - statistics & numerical data
English Abstract
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Opisthorchiasis - epidemiology - parasitology
Opisthorchis
Sewage - parasitology
Sex Distribution
Soil - parasitology
Ukraine - epidemiology
Abstract
Based on the parasitologic evaluation of 3926 individuals in different climatic and geographic areas of Ukraine it has been ascertained that levels of affection of people with opisthorchiasis depend upon natural as well as social conditions, age of the examinees (but not sex of those infected), remoteness from riverbeds. It has been shown that high levels of contamination of soil with eggs of helminths and cysts of intestinal protozoans in those foci of opisthorchiasis having very high incidence rates of this invasion make for formation in the population of multicomponent intestinal parasite cenoses.
PubMed ID
9377342 View in PubMed
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320 records – page 1 of 32.