The occurrence of abscess disease, caseous lymphadenitis, and pulmonary adenomatosis in sheep in Denmark is reported for the first time. Subcutaneous abscesses were observed in imported 4- to 5-month-old lambs of the Lacaune breed 10 days after arrival in Denmark. Abscesses were mostly located in the head, neck and shoulder regions close to the regional lymph nodes. Bacteriological examinations revealed growth of Staphylococcus aureus ssp. anaerobius in all animals with subcutaneously located abscesses containing a viscous white-yellow odourless mass. In addition, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was isolated from abscesses in one animal and lesions consistent with pulmonary adenomatosis were found in four animals.
The taxonomic position of 12 isolates tentatively assigned to the genus Bifidobacterium on the basis of a limited phenotypic characterization was examined. The isolates were collected between 1978 and 2005 in Belgium, Sweden and Norway, and originated from various human clinical samples, including urine, blood, urethra, oral cavity, tonsil, and abscesses of lung and aortic valve. On the basis of band number and clustering analysis, repetitive DNA element-based PCR fingerprinting using the BOXA1R and (GTG)(5) primers indicated that the clinical isolates represented a taxon probably not belonging to the genus Bifidobacterium. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities revealed that the isolates were most closely affiliated to Parascardovia denticolens LMG 18312(T) (93.0-93.2 %), Scardovia inopinata LMG 18313(T) (92.9-93.1 %) and other members of the Bifidobacteriaceae, indicating that the isolates belong to a novel genus within that family. This observation was further substantiated by the results of partial sequencing of the heat-shock protein 60 gene (hsp60) and determination of the DNA G+C contents (47.3-48.3 mol%). Members of the novel taxon can be phenotypically distinguished from S. inopinata, P. denticolens and Gardnerella vaginalis by the ability to grow on agar under aerobic conditions and on the basis of positive reactions for acid production from L-arabinose, raffinose, salicin and D-xylose. Unambiguous phenotypic differentiation from Aeriscardovia aeriphila and Bifidobacterium species may be difficult, so phenotypic analyses should be complemented by molecular methods. The values for DNA-DNA binding among four members of the novel genus were in the range of 89-100 %, indicating that the strains should be considered as a single novel species of a novel genus, for which the name Alloscardovia omnicolens gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Alloscardovia omnicolens is CCUG 31649(T) (=LMG 23792(T)).
OBJECTIVES: The renin-angiotensin system may play a role in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation, and renin-angiotensin system blockers reduce the risk of atrial fibrillation. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in the angiotensinogen and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genes encoding proteins in this system predict risk of atrial fibrillation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We genotyped 9235 individuals from the Danish general population, The Copenhagen City Heart Study, for the a-20c, g-6a, T174M, and M235T polymorphisms in the angiotensinogen gene and the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in the ACE gene; rare allele frequencies were 0.16, 0.40, 0.12, 0.41, and 0.49, respectively. Participants had sinus rhythm at inclusion. During 26 years of follow-up, 968 individuals developed atrial fibrillation. Multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios for atrial fibrillation for a-20c ac and cc versus aa genotype were 1.1(95% confidence interval: 1.0-1.3; P=0.05) and 1.5(1.1-2.1; P=0.01). Compared with double noncarriers (angiotensinogen -20aa and ACE II), double heterozygotes (ac-I/D genotype), and double homozygotes (cc-DD) had hazard ratios for atrial fibrillation of 1.2(0.9-1.6; P=0.06) and 2.4(1.4-4.1; P=0.001). a-20c cc homozygotes above 70 years of age who were overweight, severely hypertensive, and had heart failure, had an absolute 10-year risk of atrial fibrillation of 61%. CONCLUSION: Angiotensinogen a-20c genotype alone and in combination with ACE I/D genotype predicts an increased risk of atrial fibrillation. Therefore, genetic variation in the renin-angiotensin system may influence effect of renin-angiotensin system blockers on atrial fibrillation.
Evidence of microbial zonation in the open ocean is rapidly accumulating, but while the distribution of communities is often described according to depth, the other physical factors structuring microbial diversity and function remain poorly understood. Here we identify three different water masses in the North Water (eastern Canadian Arctic), defined by distinct temperature and salinity characteristics, and show that they contained distinct archaeal communities. Moreover, we found that one of the water masses contained an increased abundance of the archaeal alpha-subunit of the ammonia monooxygenase gene (amoA) and accounted for 70% of the amoA gene detected overall. This indicates likely differences in putative biogeochemical capacities among different water masses. The ensemble of our results strongly suggest that the widely accepted view of depth stratification did not explain microbial diversity, but rather that parent water masses provide the framework for predicting communities and potential microbial function in an Arctic marine system. Our results emphasize that microbial distributions are strongly influenced by oceanic circulation, implying that shifting currents and water mass boundaries resulting from climate change may well impact patterns of microbial diversity by displacing whole biomes from their historic distributions. This relocation could have the potential to establish a substantially different geography of microbial-driven biogeochemical processes and associated oceanic production.
Using ascites tumour cells (Ehrlich carcinoma, plasmacytoma MOPS-21, leukaemia P-388, lympholeukaemia NK/Ly) and bone marrow cells from normal rats, we have demonstrated that transcription of a gene coding for the 35S RNA can be regulated via alteration of the Na+/K+ ratio in the cells. The 35S RNA was transcriptionally active within the range 1 less than or equal to Na+/K+ less than 3 but was switched off at Na+/K+ less than 1. In synchronized Ehrlich carcinoma cells this gene was activated in the early phases of the cell cycle, when the Na+/K+ ratio in the cells exceeded 1. It was concluded that so-called cationic mechanism of regulation of transcription determines the time and sequence of stimulation of certain genes during the course of the cell cycle and that it accounts for transcription of normally repressed genes as a result of malignant transformation.
We have isolated four cDNAs encoding the entire preproprotein of prostate specific antigen from human prostatic cDNA libraries. Comparison of the coding regions of prostate specific antigen with human pancreatic kallikrein (1-3) and human glandular kallikrein (4) showed 73%-84% nucleotide and 61-77% amino acid homologies, respectively, between these enzymes. Also the 3' noncoding regions of these genes were conserved. The close resemblance of prostate specific antigen, a marker for prostatic cancer, to glandular kallikrein suggests related immunogenic properties for them.
Human isolates of hepatitis A (HAV) are a single serotype; however, recent genetic surveys using limited nucleotide sequencing have provided evidence that more than one genotype is responsible for HAV infection in different parts of the world (Jansen et al. : Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:2867-2871; Robertson et al.  J Infect Dis 163:286-292). One of these genotypes was originally isolated from Panamanian owl monkeys (strain PA21), but has subsequently been found associated with human cases of HAV from Sweden in 1979 (H-122) and the United States of America in 1976 (GA76). The nucleic acid sequence of the exposed capsid polypeptide region of GA76 differs from other human HAV sequences by approximately 20%, yet differs by only 2.4% when compared with P1 sequence of the PA21 strain. The 20% nucleic acid variability between GA76 and other human HAV results in limited amino acid changes (3%), while a comparison with PA21 revealed only four homologous amino acid substitutions within VP2, VP3, and VP1 polypeptides. HAV infected stool specimens from Nepal and northern India during 1989 and 1990 were found to contain virus whose genetic makeup was related to the PA21 and GA76 isolates. This genotype of HAV appears to be circulating in some parts of the world where HAV is hyperendemic, and is a potential cause of hepatitis A infection within a susceptible population.
This study describes a co-infection of Kudoa islandica (Myxozoa) and Nucleospora cyclopteri (Microsporida) in farmed lumpfish, Cyclopterus lumpus L., in Norway. Several other parasites (Cryptocotyle sp., protozoan ciliates and Gyrodactylus sp.) were also found in gills. In June 2013, the mortality in a farmed lumpfish population increased to 65%. Lumpfish showed erratic swimming behaviour and loss of weight. At necropsy, nodules in the kidney were the only visible lesions. Histologically, all fish showed severe changes with gill inflammation and necrosis in the spleen, kidney and liver. Haemorrhages and necrosis were observed in some hearts. Intracellular microsporidians associated with the lesions were detected in most organs using histological examination and Calcofluor White. Kudoa spores were diagnosed in the skeletal muscle, but no inflammatory response was associated with the presence of the plasmodia. Comparison of 18S ribosomal DNA sequences showed 100% similarity to Kudoa islandica and Nucleospora cyclopteri. Kudoa islandica and N. cyclopteri have previously been described associated with lesions in wild lumpfish in Iceland. In the present case, N. cyclopteri is believed to be the main cause of systemic pathology. This is the first description of K. islandica and N. cyclopteri causing pathology in farmed lumpfish in Norway.
Almost complete nucleotide sequences for the S, M, and L segments were obtained for three strains of the Batai virus (Bunyamwera serogroup, genus Orthobunyavirus, Bunyaviridae family). Based on the results of the phylogenetic analysis conducted forthe three genomic segments LEIV Ast507 and LEIV-Ast528 strains were grouped with other European BATV isolates and were found to be almost identical to the strain 42 isolated from Volgograd Region, Russia, 2003. Surprisingly, LEIV-13395 strain isolated from the Aedes sp. mosquitos in Magadan Oblast, 1987, turned out to be a novel genotype inside Bunyamwera serogroup. The highest nucleotide identity levels of LEIV-13395 genomicsegments (86.9%, 80.8%, 79.7% for S, M and L segments respectively) were observed with corresponding segments of the Batai virus.