Seven cases of septicemia with piperacillin-resistant Klebsiella oxytoca (PRKO) occurred at 2-monthly intervals in a thoracic surgery intensive care unit. All PRKO isolates were serotyped, and phenotyped with a biochemical typing system. Only one patient in the unit was found to be colonized in stool or respiratory tract with PRKO, and this strain was different from the septicemia strains in phenotype though not in serotype. Environmental cultures, from humidifiers, oxygenators, pressure transducers, etc. were negative. PRKO of the epidemic phenotype was recovered from several non-patient transducer domes. The outbreak ended when transducer heads were disinfected and the use of non-patient domes was abolished.
279 patients with 285 episodes of bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (Pnb), treated at the 2 departments for infectious diseases in Stockholm, Sweden, were reviewed retrospectively. Almost half of all episodes were caused by serotypes 3, 9 and 4 (in that order). The overall mortality rate was 7% and as low as 5% if patients with extrapulmonary complications were excluded. As in other studies male sex, alcoholism and absence of leukocytosis on admission to hospital were all associated with a higher mortality rate. However, the prognosis for old patients was much better than in most other studies. This was true also when the infecting strain was of serotype 3. For 89 consecutive patients out of the 279 ones with Pnb the clinical, laboratory and chest X-ray data were compared with those of 44 patients with non-bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (Pn) and 27 patients with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MP). Within the pneumococcal group almost all non-bacteremic patients had respiratory tract symptoms compared to less than half of the patients with bacteremic disease. High age, alcoholism, chills, pleuritic chest pain, a leukocyte count of greater than 15 x 10(9)l and an elevated CRP were factors significantly more common among those with pneumococcal pneumonia than among the MP patients. On chest X-ray an alveolar pattern was seen in all but 2 of the totally 133 patients with a pneumococcal pneumonia, but also in half the patients with MP.
The purpose of the study was to assess the risk of first-time bloodstream infection (BSI) according to type of central venous catheter (CVC) during induction therapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Patients eligible for our analysis were all newly diagnosed children with ALL treated at 3 pediatric centers in Denmark between 2008 and 2014. A total of 136 patients were followed from initial CVC placement until first BSI, CVC removal, death, or day 28, whichever occurred first. Thirty-nine BSIs were detected, of which 67% were gram-positive infections, and 59% met the criteria for being CVC associated. The 28-day cumulative incidence of BSI was similar in 77 patients with a nontunneled CVC (28%; 95% confidence interval, 19%-40%) and in 59 patients with a tunneled CVC with external lines (TE) (33%; 95% confidence interval, 23%-47%). Subgroup analyses showed that gram-negative blood isolates occurred more frequently in patients with a TE, and that lower incidences of BSI were detected in patients older than 9 years with a TE, and in patients with T-ALL. It is concluded that the type of CVC inserted at diagnosis has no impact upon the risk of BSI in patients with ALL undergoing induction therapy.
A retrospective study of 594 medical histories of patients with surgical infections suggested diagnosis of sepsis in 18.2% cases according to ACCP/SCCM criteria (1992). Pulmonary and abdominal sepsis prevailed and led to higher lethality. Sepsis developed most often as nosocomial infection caused primarily by Acinetobacter spp. and Ps.aeruginosa. Most patients were males aged from 40 to 60 years. The main causes of lethality were septic shock (49.3%) and multiple organ failure syndrome (21%). Time of surgical sanation, antibacterial therapy and its adequacy correlated with the disease outcome.
An analysis of 2376 case histories of patients with surgical infections has shown that in 827 (34.8%) patients the course of main disease was complicated by sepsis. The most frequent causes of the development of sepsis were surgical infections with localization in the abdominal cavity, lungs and mediastinum. Abdominal sepsis was diagnosed in 398 (41.7%) of patients with peritonitis. The annual growth of this category of patients was 8.3%. The outcome of abdominal sepsis was shown to depend on the score number according to scales APACHE II and SOFA, and on the timely operative treatment and beginning of antibacterial therapy.
Among the causative agents of purulent septic diseases in the surgical hospital, 25 microbial species were isolated; of these, the prevailing species were Staphylococcus aureus (19.86 +/- 1.07%), Escherichia coli (16.5 +/- 0.99%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.06 +/- 0.8%). From environmental objects in the hospital 14 microbial species were isolated, among them bacteria of the genus Enterobacter (27 +/- 1.7%), E. coli (19.07 +/- 1.48%), S. aureus (14.7 +/- 1.31%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (13.73 +/- 1.31%), P. aeruginosa (7.33 +/- 0.98%). During 3 years of observation the isolation rate of K. pneumoniae from different environmental objects was found to increase threefold to 24.7 +/- 2.7%. The results of the study of the microbial picture in surgical hospitals, as well as the antibiotic resistance of circulating causative agents, should be borne in mind while taking epidemic control measures.
This study tested whether central venous catheter (CVC)-related sepsis could be reduced by removing a hypothesized reservoir for pathogens, the CVC exit site dressing. Seventy-eight individuals with cancer, stratified for gender (37 men and 41 women) and transplant status, with newly inserted CVCs were recruited and randomly assigned to receive either a gauze dressing or no dressing, once their catheter insertion site had healed (3 weeks). Because there was no difference in CVC-related septic episodes based on gender or transplant status, the stratification was not maintained for remaining analyses. Although there was no significant difference in CVC-related septic episodes (P =.28) or rehospitalization rates (P =.41) because of CVC-related sepsis between the dressing and no-dressing group, individuals in the dressing group developed CVC-related sepsis sooner (P =.02) than did individuals in the no-dressing group.
More detailed understanding of herpes zoster (HZ) is called for in the context of an increasing observed frequency of disease, and ongoing discussions regarding potential consequences of the disease. Thus, population-based data on incidence and complications of HZ are needed.
We conducted a register-based cohort study in Västra Götaland County (population 1.5 million) in Sweden. We collected data on all patients diagnosed with HZ during the years 2008 to 2010 from population-based registers. Incidence rates (IR) of HZ and related complications were calculated and stratified by age and sex.
There were 13 269 new HZ cases during the study period. Overall, the IR of herpes zoster in both genders was 3.25 (95% CI: 3.16-3.34) per 1000 person years in 2010. The incidence was consistently higher in women than in men and in older than in young. A history of immunosuppression was more common than in the general population. The incidence was highest in individuals over 80 years of age (IR 9.2 per 1000 person years, 95% CI: 8.8-9.6) during 2008-2010. The most common complications to HZ were ocular engagement and postherpetic neuralgia; risks for stroke and sepsis were significantly elevated during the one year following diagnosis, especially in the youngest age group of patients 0-39 years.
Herpes zoster is more common in women, the elderly and immunosuppressed individuals. We verify a population-based association between herpes zoster and risk for stroke and sepsis, which may merit concern.
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Cites: Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2014 Jun 20;89(25):265-8724983077
Cites: BMJ. 2014;348:g291125134101
Cites: N Engl J Med. 2014 Oct 16;371(16):1526-3325317872