Skip header and navigation

Refine By

227 records – page 1 of 23.

1995-1996 influenza season: Canadian laboratory diagnoses and strain characterization.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature210561
Source
Can Commun Dis Rep. 1996 Nov 15;22(22):185-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-15-1996
Author
S. Zou
J. Weber
Author Affiliation
National Laboratory for Special Pathogens, Bureau of Microbiology, LCDC, Ottawa, Ontario.
Source
Can Commun Dis Rep. 1996 Nov 15;22(22):185-8
Date
Nov-15-1996
Language
English
French
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada - epidemiology
Humans
Influenza A virus - classification - isolation & purification
Influenza B virus - classification - isolation & purification
Influenza, Human - epidemiology - virology
Sentinel Surveillance
PubMed ID
9086630 View in PubMed
Less detail

Absence of Nosocomial Transmission of Imported Lassa Fever during Use of Standard Barrier Nursing Methods.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299174
Source
Emerg Infect Dis. 2018 06; 24(6):978-987
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
06-2018
Author
Anna Grahn
Andreas Bråve
Thomas Tolfvenstam
Marie Studahl
Source
Emerg Infect Dis. 2018 06; 24(6):978-987
Date
06-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Communicable Diseases, Imported - epidemiology - transmission - virology
Cross Infection - epidemiology - transmission - virology
Female
Health Personnel
Humans
Lassa Fever - epidemiology - transmission - virology
Lassa virus - classification - genetics - immunology
Male
Middle Aged
Nursing Care - methods
Sentinel Surveillance
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Nosocomial transmission of Lassa virus (LASV) is reported to be low when care for the index patient includes proper barrier nursing methods. We investigated whether asymptomatic LASV infection occurred in healthcare workers who used standard barrier nursing methods during the first 15 days of caring for a patient with Lassa fever in Sweden. Of 76 persons who were defined as having been potentially exposed to LASV, 53 provided blood samples for detection of LASV IgG. These persons also responded to a detailed questionnaire to evaluate exposure to different body fluids from the index patient. LASV-specific IgG was not detected in any of the 53 persons. Five of 53 persons had not been using proper barrier nursing methods. Our results strengthen the argument for a low risk of secondary transmission of LASV in humans when standard barrier nursing methods are used and the patient has only mild symptoms.
PubMed ID
29775178 View in PubMed
Less detail

Activity of macrolides, lincosamines, streptogramins and fluoroquinolones against streptococcus pneumoniae and enterococci isolates from the western hemisphere: example of international surveillance (SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program )in the development of new drugs.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature198751
Source
Braz J Infect Dis. 2000 Feb;4(1):15-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2000
Author
M T Lewis
R N Jones
Author Affiliation
Medical Microbiology Division, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa, USA.
Source
Braz J Infect Dis. 2000 Feb;4(1):15-21
Date
Feb-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Amino Sugars - pharmacology
Anti-Bacterial Agents - chemistry - pharmacology
Anti-Infective Agents - pharmacology
Canada
Drug Resistance, Microbial
Enterococcus - drug effects
Fluoroquinolones
Humans
Latin America
Macrolides
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Sentinel Surveillance
Streptococcus pneumoniae - drug effects
United States
Virginiamycin - pharmacology
Abstract
Resistance among commonly isolated Gram-positive cocci have compromised the available therapeutic regimens and require structured monitoring at the local, regional, national, and international levels. Two popular treatment classes of antimicrobials (macrolides-lincosamines-streptogramins [MLS], fluoroquinolones) have been tested against 3, 049 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and enterococci from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance program. The strains were obtained from clinical cases in hospitals in the United States, Canada, and six nations (10 medical centers )in Latin America. MLS and fluoroquinolone compounds had moderate activity against vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis only (gatifloxacin, and trovafloxacin MIC(50), 0.5 microg/ml), and quinupristin/dalfopristin was potent only against E.faecium isolates (MIC(90), 1 microg/ml(-2) microg/ml). When tested against pneumococci, gatifloxacin, trovafloxacin, sparfloxacin, and quinupristin/dalfopristin (MIC(90), or =99.8% and 84.7% to 99.1% of strains, respectively. These results from a global resistance monitoring program should encourage rapid drug development. Based on in vitro sensitivity testing, they indicate a promising role for the treatment of emerging resistant Gram-positive cocci. The clinical role for each new agent will depend on safety profiles, rates of administration, and other issues identified during development in the clinical trials process.
PubMed ID
10788841 View in PubMed
Less detail

Alaska sentinel surveillance for antimicrobial resistance in Helicobacter pylori isolates from Alaska native persons, 1999-2003.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature83379
Source
Helicobacter. 2006 Dec;11(6):581-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2006
Author
Bruce Michael G
Bruden Dana L
McMahon Brian J
Hennessy Thomas W
Reasonover Alisa
Morris Julie
Hurlburt Debby A
Peters Helen
Sacco Frank
Martinez Patrick
Swenson Michael
Berg Douglas E
Parks Debra
Parkinson Alan J
Author Affiliation
Arctic Investigations Program, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Anchorage, AK 99508, USA. zwa8@cdc.gov
Source
Helicobacter. 2006 Dec;11(6):581-8
Date
Dec-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Alaska - epidemiology
Amoxicillin - pharmacology
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology
Anti-Infective Agents - pharmacology
Biopsy
Clarithromycin - pharmacology
Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
Female
Helicobacter Infections - epidemiology - microbiology - pathology
Helicobacter pylori - drug effects
Humans
Male
Metronidazole - pharmacology
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Middle Aged
Population Groups
Sentinel Surveillance
Stomach - microbiology - pathology
Tetracycline - pharmacology
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Previous studies in Alaska have demonstrated elevated proportions of antimicrobial resistance among Helicobacter pylori isolates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed H. pylori data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s sentinel surveillance in Alaska from July 1999 to June 2003 to determine the proportion of culture-positive biopsies from Alaska Native persons undergoing routine upper-endoscopy, and the susceptibility of H. pylori isolates to metronidazole [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of > 8 g metronidazole/mL), clarithromycin (MIC > or = 1), tetracycline (MIC > or = 2) and amoxicillin (MIC > or = 1)] using agar dilution. RESULTS: Nine-hundred sixty-four biopsy specimens were obtained from 687 participants; 352 (51%) patients tested culture positive. Mean age of both culture-positive and culture-negative patients was 51 years. Metronidazole resistance was demonstrated in isolates from 155 (44%) persons, clarithromycin resistance from 108 (31%) persons, amoxicillin resistance from 8 (2%) persons, and 0 for tetracycline resistance. Metronidazole and clarithromycin resistance varied by geographic region. Female patients were more likely than male subjects to show metronidazole resistance (p
PubMed ID
17083381 View in PubMed
Less detail

Alaska sentinel surveillance study of Helicobacter pylori isolates from Alaska Native persons from 2000 to 2008.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature132465
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 2011 Oct;49(10):3638-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2011
Author
Adrienne H Tveit
Michael G Bruce
Dana L Bruden
Julie Morris
Alisa Reasonover
Debby A Hurlburt
Thomas W Hennessy
Brian McMahon
Author Affiliation
Alaska Native Medical Center, Anchorage, Alaska, USA.
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 2011 Oct;49(10):3638-43
Date
Oct-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alaska - epidemiology
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology
Biopsy
Child
Child, Preschool
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Female
Gastric Mucosa - microbiology
Helicobacter Infections - epidemiology
Helicobacter pylori - drug effects - isolation & purification
Humans
Male
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Middle Aged
Population Groups
Prevalence
Sentinel Surveillance
Young Adult
Abstract
Helicobacter pylori infection is more common in Alaska Native persons than in the general U.S. population, with seroprevalence to H. pylori approaching 75%. Previous studies in Alaska have demonstrated elevated proportions of antimicrobial resistance among H. pylori isolates. We analyzed H. pylori data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's sentinel surveillance in Alaska from January 2000 to December 2008 to determine the proportion of culture-positive biopsy specimens with antimicrobial resistance from Alaska Native persons undergoing endoscopy. The aim of the present study was to monitor antimicrobial resistance of H. pylori isolates over time and by region in Alaska Native persons. Susceptibility testing of H. pylori isolates to metronidazole, clarithromycin, amoxicillin, and tetracycline was performed using agar dilution. Susceptibility testing for levofloxacin was performed by Etest. Overall, 45% (532/1,181) of persons undergoing upper endoscopy were culture positive for H. pylori. Metronidazole resistance was demonstrated in isolates from 222/531 (42%) persons, clarithromycin resistance in 159/531 (30%) persons, amoxicillin resistance in 10/531 (2%) persons, and levofloxacin resistance in 30/155 (19%) persons; no tetracycline resistance was documented. The prevalence of metronidazole, clarithromycin, and levofloxacin resistance varied by region. Female patients were more likely than male patients to demonstrate metronidazole (P
Notes
Cites: Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2000 Nov;7(6):885-811063492
Cites: World J Gastroenterol. 2011 Nov 14;17(42):4682-822180710
Cites: Ann Intern Med. 2002 Jan 1;136(1):13-2411777360
Cites: Ann Intern Med. 2003 Sep 16;139(6):463-913679322
Cites: Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003 Dec;47(12):3942-414638505
Cites: Emerg Infect Dis. 2004 Jun;10(6):1088-9415207062
Cites: Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 1990 Mar;19(1):183-962184128
Cites: Lancet. 1995 Jun 24;345(8965):1591-47783535
Cites: Gut. 1996 May;38(5):675-88707111
Cites: Clin Infect Dis. 1997 Nov;25(5):973-89402340
Cites: West Indian Med J. 2004 Dec;53(6):374-715816263
Cites: J Antimicrob Chemother. 2005 Nov;56(5):965-716159928
Cites: J Med Microbiol. 2006 Jan;55(Pt 1):65-816388032
Cites: Gut. 2004 Sep;53(9):1374-8415306603
Cites: Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Apr 15;23(8):1215-2316611283
Cites: Clin Microbiol Rev. 2006 Jul;19(3):449-9016847081
Cites: Helicobacter. 2006 Dec;11(6):581-817083381
Cites: Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Jan 15;44(2):e5-817173210
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2007 Apr;66(2):144-5217515254
Cites: Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Jun 15;25(12):1429-3417539982
Cites: Helicobacter. 2008 Oct;13 Suppl 1:1-618783514
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2009 Sep;68(4):337-4619917186
Cites: Future Microbiol. 2010 Apr;5(4):639-4820353303
Cites: Gut. 2010 May;59(5):572-820427390
Cites: J Antimicrob Chemother. 2000 Dec;46(6):1029-3111102427
PubMed ID
21813726 View in PubMed
Less detail

Alexithymia and somatization in general population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature156341
Source
Psychosom Med. 2008 Jul;70(6):716-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2008
Author
Aino K Mattila
Erkki Kronholm
Antti Jula
Jouko K Salminen
Anna-Maija Koivisto
Riitta-Liisa Mielonen
Matti Joukamaa
Author Affiliation
Tampere School of Public Health, FIN-33014 University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland. aino.mattila@uta.fi
Source
Psychosom Med. 2008 Jul;70(6):716-22
Date
Jul-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Affective Symptoms - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Age Distribution
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anxiety Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Comorbidity
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depressive Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales - statistics & numerical data
Questionnaires
Sentinel Surveillance
Socioeconomic Factors
Somatoform Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Abstract
Even though the association between alexithymia and somatization seems plausible according to several studies with selected populations, it has not been verified in carefully controlled and nationally representative population studies. We conducted such a study to find out whether alexithymia is associated with somatization at population level.
This study was a part of the Finnish Health 2000 Study. The nationally representative sample comprised 5129 subjects aged 30 to 97 years. Alexithymia was measured with the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and somatic symptom reporting with the 12-item somatization scale derived from the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. Sociodemographic and health-related variables, including depressive and anxiety disorders, and physician verified somatic diagnoses, were treated as confounders in multivariate analyses.
Alexithymia was associated with somatization independently of somatic diseases, depression and anxiety and confounding sociodemographic variables. The TAS-20 factor scale "Difficulties Identifying Feelings" was the strongest common denominator between alexithymia and somatization.
This was the first time the independent association between alexithymia and somatization was established in a large, nationally representative nonclinical sample of both young and old adults with and without mental disorders and somatic diseases.
PubMed ID
18596251 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
CMAJ. 2001 Mar 6;164(5):680
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-6-2001

[An HIV prevalence study by means of sentinel epidemiological surveillance among injection narcotic abusers in Saint Petersburg].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature197225
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2000 Jul-Aug;(4):31-3
Publication Type
Article
Author
T T Smol'skaia
L N Khodakevich
Iu V Kobyshcha
A S Pimenov
D V Ostrovskii
E A Shilova
S V Suvorova
S V Kotova
Zh V Terent'eva
G V Volkova
G A Makarenko
Author Affiliation
North-Western Regional Scientific Methodological Center for Prevention and Control of AIDS, Public Organization Vozvrashcheniye (Return), St. Petersburg, Russia.
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2000 Jul-Aug;(4):31-3
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Chronic Disease
Female
HIV Antibodies - blood
HIV Seroprevalence
Humans
Male
Needle-Exchange Programs
Opioid-Related Disorders - epidemiology - immunology
Russia - epidemiology
Sentinel Surveillance
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - epidemiology - immunology
Urban Population - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The data on the study of the spread of HIV infection among injecting drug users in St. Petersburg, carried out by the method of the random testing of blood remaining in used syringes, are presented. Injecting drug users visiting buses working in accordance with the program "Buses for Assistance to Drug Addicts" were chosen as a study group. The exchange of syringes was one of the elements of this program. The work was carried out in two areas with a high concentration of drug users. The eluates from syringes used by 300 persons were studied. The average rate of the spread of HIV in the cohort under study was 12%. The results were indicative of a high degree of the spread of HIV among injecting drug users in St. Petersburg. Epidemiological patrol surveillance proved to be an effective method for the evaluation of the epidemiological situation in a highly inaccessible group of the population.
PubMed ID
10994099 View in PubMed
Less detail

Animal health surveillance: navigation amidst the flotsam of human frailty and fiscal inertia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature127274
Source
Prev Vet Med. 2012 Jul 1;105(3):169-75
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1-2012
Author
J A Kellar
Author Affiliation
TSE Policy Coordinator, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, 3851 Fallowfield Road, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K2H 8P9. john.kellar@inspection.gc.ca
Source
Prev Vet Med. 2012 Jul 1;105(3):169-75
Date
Jul-1-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animal Diseases - economics - epidemiology
Animal Welfare
Animals
Communicable disease control
Costs and Cost Analysis
Humans
Population Surveillance
Sentinel Surveillance - veterinary
Veterinary Medicine - methods - trends
Abstract
National veterinary services monitor endemic, emerging and exotic disease situations. They intervene when epidemic tendencies demand. They unravel complex disease situations. They do so as monopolies, in environments of political influence and budgetary restraint. When human, animal health and trade protection dictate, they design import or domestic disease control programs. As much as 80% of program expenditures are on surveillance. Their initiatives are scrutinized by treasuries from which they seek funding, industries from which they seek collaboration and trading partners from whom they seek recognition. In democracies, surveillance and control programs are often the products of a complicated consultative process. It involves individuals who have both a commitment to improving an existing animal health situation and access to the required resources. The generations that designed traditionally risk-averse national surveillance and control programs have given way to a new one which is more epidemiologically informed. Their successors design programs bearing epidemiologically based improvements. The transition, however, has not been overwhelmingly welcomed. Expenditures on surveillance are tolerated out of fear during outbreaks of foreign or re-emergence of indigenous disease. Between epidemics, they decline at the hands of producers' unwillingness and budgetary restraint. Human nature responds to the high cost of surveillance in forms ranging from naïveté through to conspiracy. While legislation cannot subdue such human frailty, several other opportunities exist. Education can remove the majority of problems caused by ignorance, leaving the minority that arise intentionally. Technology decreases the high cost of testing which tempts individuals to cut corners. International standards assist National Veterinary Services to overcome domestic resistance.
PubMed ID
22310236 View in PubMed
Less detail

An outbreak of norovirus caused by consumption of oysters from geographically dispersed harvest sites, British Columbia, Canada, 2004.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature161192
Source
Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2007;4(3):349-58
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
Samara T David
Lorraine McIntyre
Laura MacDougall
Deirdre Kelly
Sing Liem
Klaus Schallié
Alan McNabb
Alain Houde
Peter Mueller
Pierre Ward
Yvon-Louis Trottier
Julie Brassard
Author Affiliation
Canadian Field Epidemiology Program, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada. samara.david@bccdc.ca
Source
Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2007;4(3):349-58
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
British Columbia - epidemiology
Caliciviridae Infections - epidemiology - virology
Disease Outbreaks
Feces - virology
Food contamination - analysis
Food Microbiology
Gastroenteritis - epidemiology - virology
Humans
Norovirus - classification - isolation & purification
Ostreidae - virology
Sentinel Surveillance
Shellfish - virology
Water Microbiology
Abstract
In January 2004, an increase in gastrointestinal illness following oyster consumption was reported in British Columbia. An investigation was initiated to explore the association between norovirus infection and consumption of British Columbia oysters and to identify the source of oyster contamination.
The outbreak investigation included active surveillance for human cases, two cohort studies, trace-back of oysters, and laboratory testing of oysters and human stools.
Enhanced surveillance identified 26 confirmed and 53 clinical cases over 3 months. Oyster consumption was associated with illness in one cohort and suggestive in the other. Oysters were traced to 14 geographically dispersed harvest sites, 18 suppliers, and 45 points of purchase. Norovirus BCCDC03-028 (genotype I.2) was detected in 50% of human specimens. Experimental methods detected norovirus in 12 oyster samples. Sequencing identified mixed clonal patterns in the oysters with one direct sequence match between an oyster sample and the associated human specimen.
The consumption of raw oysters led to norovirus infection. The source of oyster contamination remained unidentified. The geographical dispersion of implicated harvest sites was unusual.
This outbreak is unlike most shellfish outbreaks that can be traced back to a common source and challenges conventional thinking that all oyster-related norovirus outbreaks of are a result of point source contamination.
PubMed ID
17883318 View in PubMed
Less detail

227 records – page 1 of 23.