This paper examines access to bathtub grab bars in privately and publicly owned apartment buildings and explores the profile of seniors who have access to bathtub grab bars. Results indicate that bathtub grab bars were significantly more prevalent in apartments that were publicly owned (91.3%) as compared to privately owned (37.8%) (p
The purpose of this study was to identify, from the personal perspective of students with disability, their needs for physical and social accommodations in upper secondary schools specially adapted for students with severe physical disabilities. The study also aimed to identify those areas of student-environment fit which were most often achieved. Forty-eight students in four schools in Sweden were assessed by occupational therapists using the School Setting Interview. Forty-seven students reported needs for accommodations in the school setting. The study indicates that schools generally were able to meet the students' accommodation needs in the physical environment. The schools also met students' accommodation needs for field trips, sport activities and assistance. Student-environment fit in occupations requiring reading, remembering and speaking was unsatisfactory. Accommodations on a general, group and individual level are highlighted and discussed. The study recommends that occupational therapists become more involved and offer society their expertise in barrier removal to a greater extent.
This paper describes the technical approach in the TUFFA (Technology Procurement for Disabled in Working Life) project and a model for cooperating areas of competence based on a holistic view of the individual's abilities, the environmental conditions at the work site, and technical solutions.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe functional performance in activities of daily living (ADL) and the use of technical aids among persons with late effects of polio. METHOD: Abilities in ADL of 150 participants 20 to 82 years of age were assessed with the Sunnaas Index of ADL, and the participants' use of technical aids was recorded. RESULTS: The activities in which most participants were independent were eating, daily hygiene, and communication. Many needed technical aids, adaptation of their homes, or both to perform mobility-related activities and to dress or undress, take a bath or shower, cook, or manage toilet visits. In total, 86 (57%) used mobility aids such as canes, crutches, and walkers. Thirty-one (21%) used wheelchairs within or outside the home. Bath and shower aids were the most commonly used technical aids other than mobility aids. The activity where most participants depended on others was housework. CONCLUSION: In spite of their disabilities, most participants performed well in many ADL, functioning independently by using technical aids and by living in an adapted environment.
Six hundred and nineteen persons from the population study of 70-year-olds "The intervention study of the elderly in Göteborg" (IVEG) were examined. They were interviewed in their home environment concerning their ability to manage activities of daily living (ADL), and the definition "ADL-reduction" is based on seven of these ADL-measurements. One third of the 70-year-old population had reduced ADL-capability, some only slightly. Joint disorders, paresis and congestive heart failure were the most common problems among the ADL-reduced subjects. Forty-three per cent of the ADL-reduced subjects (19% of total) received help with their personal care and/or housekeeping. One third had technical aid, mostly quite simple and inexpensive. Half were provided with new technical aids. The need for technical aids and home help service was noted and intervention undertaken as and when necessary. The needs were correlated to physical activity and performance in functional tests. The results do not illustrate the occurrence of handicap but are aimed at illustrating the special needs that elderly people may have in their normal surroundings.
To describe an adult population with congenital limb deficiency (CLD) recruited through the National Resource Centre for Rare Disorders (TRS) in Norway: (1) demographic factors, (2) clinical features, (3) pain and (4) use of health care and welfare services.
Cross-sectional study. In 2012, a postal questionnaire was sent to 186 eligible persons with CLD, age 20 years and older.
Ninety-seven respondents, median-age 39 years (range: 20-82); 71% were women. The population was divided into two subgroups: (1) unilateral upper-limb deficiency (UULD) n = 77, (2) multiple and/or lower-limb deficiency (MLD/LLD). About 40% worked full-time, 18% received disability pensions and 64% reported chronic pain, mostly bilateral pain. Grip-improving devices were used more often than prostheses; 23% were previous prosthesis users. Use of health care and welfare services are described. No significant differences were found between the subgroups regarding pain or employment status.
Persons with CLD reported increased prevalence of chronic pain, mostly bilateral, and increased prevalence of early retirement. A greater focus on the benefits of the use of assistive devices, the consequences of overuse and vocational guidance may moderate pain and prevent early retirement. Further studies of more representative samples should be conducted to confirm our findings.
Most adults with congenital limb deficiency (CLD) live ordinary lives and experience normal life events. However, several report chronic pain and retire before normal retirement age. In spite of free and accessible prosthetic services, a large fraction chooses not to use prosthesis, more use grip-improving devices for specific activities. These preferences should be acknowledged by rehabilitation specialists. Focus on individually adapted environments, more information about the consequences of overuse, and vocational guidance may moderate pain and prevent early retirement.
This study evaluated a dyadic peer support pilot intervention for parents of technology-assisted children with chronic lung disease. These medically-fragile children, living at home in the primary care of their parents, require continuous or intermittent assistance from technological support such as home oxygen, respiratory or cardiac monitors and/or mechanical ventilators. The intervention consisted of matching parents with similar caregiving responsibilities, in order to reciprocally engage in parent-to-parent support. Results identified mixed outcomes based on quantitative and qualitative methods. Participants conveyed benefits and limitations of this modality of peer-based support. They generally favoured peer support as a clinical resource for caregiving parents as the intervention offered a valued opportunity for mutual sharing with another parent who could understand the unique realities particular to caring for a medically-fragile child. Sharing daily experiences was reported to reduce isolation, increase knowledge, and provide an important sense of feeling understood. Challenges associated with peer support included scheduling difficulties and personality incompatibility. Recommendations for program development in clinical settings are described.
Initial functional ability (Barthel Index, mean 57) was found to be an important predictor of functional ability 1 year after stroke (mean 80) and for costs during the period. On average the total cost for a stroke patient was about SEK 200,000; the main expense, accommodation, averaged about SEK 140,000, while assistive devices amounted to SEK 2,600. Those who use assistive devices, although having achieved a high functional ability, perceive and rate their life situation (Nottingham Health Profile) considerably more impaired than those without assistive devices.
The aim of this study was to investigate the use and need of assistive devices (ADs) in a cross-national European sample of very old persons, focusing on national similarities and differences as well as similarities and differences according to age and level of health status. Data from the ENABLE-AGE research project were utilized involving very old persons in Sweden, Germany, Latvia, Hungary, and the United Kingdom (UK). Personal interviews with single-living old persons were conducted (n = 1918). Of the total sample 65% reported that they had and used one or more ADs, and 24% reported unfilled need. The most commonly used ADs were devices for communication, followed by devices for mobility. Participants in Hungary and Latvia used a lower total number of ADs. Comparisons among sub-groups according to age between the Western and the Eastern European national samples showed significant differences. The result can to some extent be explained by different welfare systems and presumably differences in knowledge and awareness of ADs, and further research is called for. However, the result can serve as input for future planning and development of information, services, and community-based occupational therapy, to improve healthcare and social services for older people.