Selenium is present in the active site of proteins important for thyroid hormone synthesis and metabolism. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of selenium supplementation in different doses on thyroid function, under conditions of suboptimal dietary selenium intake.
The Danish PREvention of Cancer by Intervention with SElenium pilot study (DK-PRECISE) is a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 491 males and females aged 60-74 years were randomized to 100?µg (n=124), 200?µg (n=122), or 300?µg (n=119) selenium-enriched yeast or matching yeast-based placebo tablets (n=126). A total of 361 participants, equally distributed across treatment groups, completed the 5-year intervention period.
Plasma samples were analyzed for selenium and serum samples for TSH, free triiodothyronine (FT3), and free thyroxine (FT4) at baseline, and after 6 months, and 5 years of supplementation.
Plasma selenium concentrations increased significantly and dose-dependently in treatment groups receiving selenium (P
Since fish is a food rich in selenium in Sweden, selenium status among healthy adults was studied after a change to a diet containing 150-200 g of fish per day. In two experiments the fish diet was maintained for 6 and 11 weeks. The mean increase in plasma selenium was 0.13 mumol/l (13%). Most of the increase was evident already after 3 weeks. In previous studies of the same individuals this diet caused a delay in primary haemostasis and a decrease in platelet aggregability. There was no apparent temporal relationship between the increase in plasma selenium and the increase in bleeding time and the proportion of eicosapentaenoic acid in platelet or plasma phosphatidylcholine. Further analysis is necessary to distinguish the effects of fish fatty acids and selenium on haemostatic functions.
Effect of long-term selenium yeast intervention on activity and gene expression of antioxidant and xenobiotic metabolising enzymes in healthy elderly volunteers from the Danish Prevention of Cancer by Intervention by Selenium (PRECISE) pilot study.
Numerous mechanisms have been proposed to explain the anti-carcinogenic effects of Se, among them altered carcinogen metabolism. We investigated the effect of Se supplementation on activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in different blood compartments, and expression of selected phase 1 and phase 2 genes in leucocytes (GPX1, gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), AP-1 transcription factor Fos-related antigen 1 (Fra1), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AhRR)). Healthy elderly Danes (n 105; age 71.3 (SD 4.26) years; 36% reporting use of multivitamin/mineral supplements) participated and were supplemented daily for 5 years with placebo, 100 microg, 200 microg or 300 microg Se as Se-enriched yeast (SelenoPrecise). Blood samples were collected after 5 years of intervention. When all four groups were compared we found no effect of Se supplementation on plasma GPX or GR, on erythrocyte GPX, GR or GST, or on thrombocyte GR or GST. We found increased thrombocyte GPX activity at the two highest dosage levels in women only, but not in men. No effects on GPX1, NQO1 or AhRR gene expression were found. When all Se-supplemented groups were pooled we found significant down regulation of the expression of some phase 2 genes (GCLC, Fra1). A significant increase in AhRR gene expression with smoking was found but was independent of Se supplementation. Down regulation of phase 2 genes could increase the risk of cancer. However, further studies are needed to establish whether the observed effect in leucocytes reflects a similar expression pattern in target tissues.
A study was performed on the effect of increased selenium intake on the serum selenium level of 212 children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and of 214 controls in a follow-up study during the Finnish nationwide selenium fertilization programme, which was started in 1984. The mean serum level of selenium increased from 0.90 mumol l-1 in 1985 to 1.56 mumol l-1 in 1990 in the children with JRA. The corresponding selenium levels in the controls were 0.87 mumol l-1 in 1985 and 1.33 mumol l-1 in 1990. Boys had slightly higher selenium levels in all the age groups among the patients and the controls. During the entire 10-year observation period, the patients with JRA had slightly higher mean levels of selenium than the controls. The age of the children did not have any significant effect on the selenium level in either group. The present study shows that the main factor affecting the serum level of selenium was the dietary intake of selenium both in patients and in healthy controls.
Concentrations of selenium in the soil are very low in most regions in Finland, which explains the low selenium contents of agricultural plants and the low dietary intake of selenium. The poor selenium status of the population in Finland has been considered a possible risk to public health. In 1984, it was decided to increase the selenium intake by adding selenate to common agricultural fertilizers. In this study, the selenium concentrations of whole blood and plasma, as well as erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activities, were measured in blood samples from four different localities in Finland, in 1984 and 1986, before and during the agricultural selenium supplementation. A low blood level of selenium in the inhabitants of central Finland was demonstrated in 1984. The selenium level of people from the south-west archipelago was a little higher, and that from the northern part of Finland considerably higher than the level in the rest of the country. By 1986, differences between these localities had almost disappeared, and most levels had increased. Plasma selenium concentrations were lower than those in whole blood samples; the concentrations showed a significant correlation. The glutathione peroxidase activities were at the same level in all four localities in 1984. By 1986, they had all increased to a slightly higher level. A weak correlation was found between erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity and blood selenium level.
OBJECTIVE: Few biomarkers for dietary intake of various food groups have been established. The aim of the present study was to explore whether selenium (Se), iodine, mercury (Hg) or arsenic may serve as a biomarker for total fish and seafood intake in addition to the traditionally used n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. DESIGN: Intake of fish and seafood estimated by an FFQ was compared with intake assessed by a 4 d weighed food diary and with biomarkers in blood and urine. SETTING: Validation study in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). SUBJECTS: One hundred and nineteen women. RESULTS: Total fish/seafood intake (median 39 g/d) calculated with the MoBa FFQ was comparable to intake calculated by the food diary (median 30 g/d, rS = 0.37, P
RefSource: Public Health Nutr. 2009 Dec;12(12):2536-7
The effect of an increased intake of wheat selenium (Se) on platelet Se, serum Se, whole-blood Se, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels was investigated in 14 healthy Norwegian females (age 21-53 years). The intake of 60 micrograms Se per day as wheat Se, for six weeks, significantly increased the platelet Se (mean +/- SEM) from 9.1 +/- 1.1 mumol/L to 11.4 +/- 0.9 mumol/L, the serum Se from 1.43 +/- 0.18 mumol/L to 1.63 +/- 0.25 mumol/L, and the whole blood Se from 1.77 +/- 0.18 mumol/L to 2.01 +/- 0.18 mumol/L. The increase in percent of initial Se values was twice as high for platelets as for serum and whole blood. The GSH-Px levels were not altered during the experiment. Platelet Se was not significantly correlated to the Se intake initially. At the end of the experimental period, the Se in platelets reflected the total Se intake, but not with a simple linear correlation. No significant correlation between the total Se intake and the Se concentration in whole blood or serum was found.
A low blood selenium level has previously been observed in healthy inhabitants of Finland (WESTERMARCK et al. 1977). In this study even lower blood selenium values were observed in patients with acrodermatitis enteropathica, dystrophia musculorum progressiva (Duchenne), infantile and juvenile type of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), severe mental retardation caused by various factors, and myocardial infarction. The selenium content of the brain, heart, kidney and liver in patients of different ages was also determined. The highest selenium level was found in the kidney. The mean liver selenium concentrations in stillborn, premature and full-term neonates were 1.11 +/- 0.23 (8), 1.21 +/- 0.17 (12) and 0.93 +/- 0.16 microgram/g dry weight (12) respectively (the number of subjects in parentheses). The selenium values are considerably higher than those in infants of from one to nine months of age and adults, whose liver selenium values were 0.58 +/- 0.21 (8) and 0.67 +/- 0.08 microgram/g dry weight (8) respectively. The vitamin E levels of serum in patients with NCL, as well as in subjects with severe mental retardation (controls), were low compared with values in healthy normal subjects. Sodium selenite supplementation in patients with NCL produced at least a transitory improvement without causing any toxic effects during one year of administration.
For geochemical reasons Finland is a low-selenium area. In the 1960's several diseases associated with serious Se deficiency were observed in domestic animals. Selenium medication of animals and selenium supplementation of animal feeds from 1969 effectively eliminated these diseases. An extensive study of the trace element content of foods consumed in Finland in the 1970's demonstrated that the dietary intake of selenium was exceptionally low (25 micrograms/day/10 MJ) during the years when domestic grains were used. A study carried out in 1981 showed that supplementation of healthy middle-aged men with high selenium wheat or yeast or selenate double the glutathione peroxidase activity in platelets. Prospective epidemiological studies based on cohorts that were followed in the 1970's suggested that low selenium (less than 45 ng/ml serum) might be a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Technologies to increase the selenium content of foods and feeds were developed and an official decision was reached to add, starting in 1984, sodium selenate to the main fertilizers to increase the selenium content of domestic grain to about 100 micrograms/kg. This measure will increase the average selenium intake above 50 micrograms/d even in the years when grain with a high selenium content is not imported.