Physically active occupations with high-energy expenditure may lead to lower motivation to exercise during leisure time, while the reverse can be hypothesized for sedentary occupations. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of changing occupational activity level on exercise behavior.
Data on occupational physical activity and leisure time exercise were taken from a population-based cohort, with surveys completed in 2010 and 2014. Using data on those employed in both years, two trajectories were analyzed: (i) participants who changed from sedentary to active occupations and (ii) participants who changed from active to sedentary occupations. Exercise was reported in hours per week and changes from 2010 to 2014 were categorized as decreased, increased or stable. Associations were expressed as ORs and 95% CIs adjusting for age, gender and education.
Data were available for 12 969 participants (57% women, aged 45 ± 9 years, 57% highly educated). Relative to participants whose occupational activity was stable, participants who changed to active occupations (n = 549) were more likely to decrease exercise (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.02-1.47) and those who changed to sedentary occupations (n = 373) more likely to increase exercise levels (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 0.97-1.52).
People changing from sedentary to active occupations compensate by exercising less, and those changing from physically active to sedentary occupations seem to compensate by exercising more in their leisure time. When developing and evaluating interventions to reduce occupational sedentary behavior or to promote exercise, mutual influences on physical activity of different contexts should be considered.
Identifying factors that can influence young peoples' physical activity and sedentary behaviors is important for the development of effective interventions. The family structure in which children grow up may be one such factor. As the prevalence of single parent and reconstituted families have increased substantially over the last decades, the objective of this study was to examine whether these family structures are differentially associated with young people's MVPA, participation in organized sports and screen-time activities (screen-based passive entertainment, gaming, other screen-based activities) as compared to traditional nuclear families.
The data stem from the 2013/2014 "Health Behaviour in School- aged Children (HBSC) study". A large Norwegian sample of 11-16?years old students (n =?4509) participated. Cluster-adjusted regression models were estimated using full information maximum likelihood with robust standard errors (MLR).
After adjusting for covariates, living with a single parent was negatively associated with days/week with 60?min MVPA (b?=?-.39, 95%CI: -.58, -.20), and positively associated with hours/weekday of total screen time (b?=?.50, 95%CI: .08, .93). Young people living with a single parent were also more likely to report no participation in organized sports (OR?=?1.40, 95%CI: 1.09, 1.79). Living in a reconstituted family was negatively associated with days/week with 60?min MVPA (b?=?-.31, 95%CI: -.53, -.08), and positively associated with hours/weekday of total screen time (b?=?.85, 95%CI: .37, 1.33). For all outcomes, the interaction effects of family structure with sex, and with having siblings were not statistically significant. For material affluence, a significant interaction effect was found for participation in organized sports (?2  =13.9, p =?.008). Those living in a reconstituted family with low or high material affluence had an increased risk for not participating in organized sports whereas those with medium material affluence did not.
This study suggests that living with a single parent or in reconstituted families was unfavorably associated with physical activity, sport participation and screen-based behaviors among Norwegian youth. The findings indicate that family structure could be an important factor to take into account in the development and testing of interventions. More in-depth research is needed to identify the mechanisms involved.
This study examined the associations of subjective social status (SSS) with physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST) among adolescents. The study population consisted of 420 Finnish adolescents aged 13 to 14 years. The adolescents reported their own SSS within their school (school SSS) and their family's social position within society (society SSS) based on the youth version of the Subjective Social Status Scale. Adolescents' moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and ST were measured objectively by accelerometers and analyzed separately for the whole day and the school day. The associations between SSS and MVPA and ST outcomes were analyzed using multilevel modeling. School SSS was positively associated with whole-day MVPA and negatively associated with school-time ST. Society SSS was not significantly associated with objectively measured MVPA or ST. Both MVPA and ST are important behavioral determinants of health. As an important correlate of MVPA and ST, school SSS should be addressed by providers when discussing obesity risk and healthy behaviors with adolescents.
Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Education, Arts and Sports, Department of Sport, Food and Natural Sciences, Campus Sogndal, Box 133, 6851 Sogndal, Norway. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Physical activity (PA) favorably affects metabolic health in children, but it is unclear how total volumes versus patterns (bouts and breaks) of PA relate to health. By means of multivariate pattern analysis that can handle collinear variables, we determined the associations of PA volumes and patterns with children's metabolic health using different epoch settings. A sample of 841 Norwegian children (age 10.2?±?0.3?years) provided in 2014 data on accelerometry (ActiGraph GT3X+), using epoch settings of 1, 10, and 60?s and several indices of metabolic health used to create a composite metabolic health score. We created 355 PA indices covering the whole intensity and bout duration spectrum, and used multivariate pattern analysis to analyze the data. Findings showed that bouts of PA added information about childhood health beyond total volumes of PA for all epoch settings. Yet, associations of PA patterns with metabolic health were completely dependent on the epoch settings used. Vigorous PA was strongly associated with metabolic health, while associations of light and moderate PA were weak to moderate, and associations of sedentary time with metabolic health was non-existing. Short intermittent bursts of PA were favorably associated with children's metabolic health, whereas associations of prolonged bouts were weak. This study is the first to determine the multivariate physical activity association pattern related to metabolic health in children across the whole PA intensity and bout duration spectrum. The findings challenge our understanding of PA patterns, and are of major importance for the analysis of accelerometry data.
Data on time spent in physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep during a day is compositional in nature, i.e. they add up to a constant value. Compositional data have fundamentally different properties from unconstrained data in real space, and require other analytical procedures, referred to as compositional data analysis (CoDA). Most physical activity and sedentary behavior studies, however, still apply analytical procedures adapted to data in real space, which can lead to misleading results. The present study describes a comparison of time spent sedentary and in physical activity between age groups and sexes, and investigates the extent to which results obtained by CoDA differ from those obtained using standard analytical procedures.
Time spent sedentary, standing, and in physical activity (walking/running/stair climbing/cycling) during work and leisure was determined for 1-4 days among 677 blue-collar workers using accelerometry. Differences between sexes and age groups were tested using MANOVA, using both a standard and a CoDA approach based on isometric log-ratio transformed data.
When determining differences between sexes for different activities time at work, the effect size using standard analysis (?2?=?0.045, p?
Energy drink (ED) consumption is increasing all over the world. We sought to describe the consumption of EDs among adolescents in Norway, and to explore the determinants of daily and high consumption.
Population-based cross-sectional data were collected from a sample of 31,091 secondary school students in grade 8-13 aged 12-19?years. School grade, residency, socioeconomic status (SES), physical activity and leisure screen time were included in multiple regression analyses, in order to investigate their associations with daily and high (=four times weekly) ED consumption.
52.3% of the respondents were ED consumers and 3.5% were high consumers. Boys consumed twice as much ED as girls (boys: 36.3?ml/day, girls: 18.5?ml/day, geometric means), and the proportion of male high consumers was 3.7-times higher than that of females. The adjusted odd ratio (OR) of upper secondary school (grades 11-13, ages 15-19) students being high ED consumers were higher than for lower secondary school (grades 8-10, ages 12-15) students (OR 1.1(confidence interval (CI):1.0-1.3)), as well as higher for rural than urban residents (OR 1.3 (CI: 1.1-1.5)). Gradients for the increased ORs of being a high ED consumer were found for decreased SES, decreased frequency of physical activity and increased daily leisure screen time.
More than half of the respondents reported that they were ED consumers. Daily and high consumption were independently associated with male gender, physical inactivity, high leisure screen time, low socioeconomic status and rural residency.
Insufficient sleep is associated with increased risk of several health concerns. Although physical activity is generally considered to improve sleep, the influence of different levels of exercise frequency, duration and intensity respectively, has not been sufficiently examined to allow specific recommendations to the general population. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the association between different levels of the three cardinal characteristics of exercise and sleep disturbance.
Data were collected through a Norwegian comprehensive self-report survey. A total of 3763 respondents (46% males, 54% females) with an average age of 47.9 years (range 15-93) completed the questionnaire, whereof 13.7% were categorized as poor sleepers. The exercise characteristics and sleep disturbance were measured on a 6 to 8 and a 4-item Likert scale, respectively.
Respondents reporting intermediate levels of exercise frequency, duration and intensity, respectively, had a significantly lower occurrence of sleep disturbance compared to respondents with a sedentary lifestyle. No statistical difference in sleep disturbance was observed between respondents performing exercise corresponding to the lowest and highest levels of the three exercise characteristics and those who were sedentary.
The lack of positive association between the lowest and highest levels of the cardinal exercise characteristic and reduction in sleep disturbance revealed in the present study support a recommendation of intermediate levels of exercise frequency, duration and intensity for preventing sleep disturbance in the general population.
Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) is associated with longevity in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, less is known about prognostic significance of longitudinally assessed LTPA in patients with stable CAD. The present study assessed the relationship between changes in LTPA and cardiac mortality in patients with CAD. Patients with angiographically documented CAD (n?=?1,746) underwent clinical examination and echocardiography at the baseline. Lifestyle factors, including LTPA (inactive, irregularly active, active, highly active), were surveyed at baseline and after 2 years' follow-up. Thereafter, the patients entered the follow-up (median: 4.5 years; first to third quartile: 3.4 to 5.8 years) during which cardiac deaths were registered (n?=?68, 3.9%). The patients who remained inactive (n?=?114, 18 events, 16%) and became inactive (n?=?228, 18 events, 8%) had 7.6- (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.2 to 13.6) and 3.7-fold (95% CI 2.1 to 6.7) univariate risk for cardiac death compared with those who remained at least irregularly active (n?=?1,351, 30 events, 2%), respectively. After adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, diabetes, previous myocardial infarction, left ventricular ejection fraction, angina pectoris grading, cardiovascular event during initial 2-year follow-up, smoking and alcohol consumption, the patients who remained inactive and became inactive still had 4.9- (95% CI 2.4 to 9.8, p?
Background The association between cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity and coronary artery calcium (CAC) is unclear, and whether higher levels of fitness attenuate CAC prevalence in subjects with metabolic syndrome is not fully elucidated. The present study aims to: a) investigate the independent association of fitness on the prevalence of CAC, after adjustment for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time, and b) study the possible attenuation of increased CAC by higher fitness, in participants with metabolic syndrome. Design Cross-sectional. Methods In total 678 participants (52% women), 50-65 years old, from the SCAPIS pilot study were included. Fitness (VO2max) was estimated by submaximal cycle ergometer test and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time were assessed using hip-worn accelerometers. CAC score (CACS) was quantified using the Agatston score. Results The odds of having a significant CACS (=100) was half in participants with moderate/high fitness compared with their low fitness counterparts. Further consideration of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary time and number of components of the metabolic syndrome did only slightly alter the effect size. Those with metabolic syndrome had 47% higher odds for significant CAC compared with those without metabolic syndrome. However, moderate/high fitness seems to partially attenuate this risk, as further joint analysis indicated an increased odds for having significant CAC only in the unfit metabolic syndrome participants. Conclusions Being fit is associated with a reduced risk of having significant CAC in individuals with metabolic syndrome. While still very much underutilized, fitness should be taken into consideration in everyday clinical risk prediction in addition to the traditional risk factors of the metabolic syndrome.
Increased sedentariness has been linked to the growing prevalence of obesity in children, but some longitudinal studies suggest that sedentariness may be a consequence rather than a cause of increased adiposity. We used Mendelian randomization to examine the causal relations between body mass index (BMI) and objectively assessed sedentary time and physical activity in 3-8 year-old children from one Finnish and two Danish cohorts [NTOTAL=679]. A genetic risk score (GRS) comprised of 15 independent genetic variants associated with childhood BMI was used as the instrumental variable to test causal effects of BMI on sedentary time, total physical activity, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). In fixed effects meta-analyses, the GRS was associated with 0.05 SD/allele increase in sedentary time (P=0.019), but there was no significant association with total physical activity (beta=0.011 SD/allele, P=0.58) or MVPA (beta=0.001 SD/allele, P=0.96), adjusting for age, sex, monitor wear-time and first three genome-wide principal components. In two-stage least squares regression analyses, each genetically instrumented one unit increase in BMI z-score increased sedentary time by 0.47 SD (P=0.072). Childhood BMI may have a causal influence on sedentary time but not on total physical activity or MVPA in young children. Our results provide important insights into the regulation of movement behaviour in childhood.