Acrylamide in baked and toasted wheat and rye bread was studied in relation to levels of asparagine in flour, dough, bread and toasts. Asparagine was consumed during bread preparation resulting in reduced acrylamide content in the products. In wheat bread, 12% of the asparagine initially present in the flour (0.14 g kg(-1)) remained after yeast fermentation and baking; for rye bread, 82% of asparagine remained after sourdough fermentation and baking. Asparagine present in untoasted wheat bread had totally reacted after hard toasting. Toasted wheat and rye bread slices contained 11-161 and 27-205 microg kg(-1) acrylamide, respectively, compared to untoasted wheat and rye bread with
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multi-factorial disease in which diet is believed to play a role. Little is known about the health effects of specific regional diets. The Nordic diet is high in fat and sugar but also includes a range of traditional products with anticipated health-promoting effects. The aim of this cohort study was to determine whether a healthy Nordic food index consisting of fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal, apples, pears and root vegetables was related to CRC incidence. Data were obtained from a prospective cohort study of 57,053 Danish men and women aged 50-64 years, of whom 1025 developed CRC (13 years' follow-up). Incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95 % CI were calculated from Cox proportional hazard models. Women who strongly adhered to a healthy Nordic food index had a 35 % lower incidence of CRC than women with poor adherence (adjusted IRR, 0·65; 95 % CI 0·46, 0·94); a similar tendency was found for men. Women had a 9 % lower incidence of CRC per point adherence to the healthy Nordic food index, but no significant effect was found for men. A regional diet based on healthy Nordic food items was therefore associated with a lower incidence of CRC in women. The protective effect was of the same magnitude as previously found for the Mediterranean diet, suggesting that healthy regional diets should be promoted in order to ensure health; this will also preserve cultural heredity and the environment.
The urinary alkylresorcinol (AR) metabolites, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) and 3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid (DHPPA), could potentially serve as biomarkers for intake of whole-grain (WG) wheat and rye. Excretion of AR metabolites is largely dependent on the intake of AR but may also be influenced by other factors. This study aimed to investigate the validity of free and conjugated AR metabolites as biomarkers for WG intake of wheat and rye and to identify potential determinants of AR metabolites in urine. We quantified free aglycones and conjugates of AR metabolites in 24-h urine collections from 52 free-living Swedish adults and calculated correlation coefficients between urinary AR metabolite excretion and self-reported WG intake. We used partial least-squares regression to identify possible determinants of urinary AR metabolites. Approximately 50% of urinary AR metabolites were found as conjugates. Excretions of individually quantified free and conjugated AR metabolites and their sums were correlated to self-reported intake of WG rye and wheat (r = 0.50-0.68; P
Alkylresorcinols (AR) have been established as short/medium-term biomarkers for whole grain (WG) wheat and rye intake; and AR metabolites, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid, have been suggested as complementary biomarkers to AR. The present study examined the medium-term reproducibility and relative validity of urinary AR metabolites as biomarkers for WG and cereal fibre intake. A total of sixty-six free-living Swedes completed 3 d weighed food records and provided single 24 h urine collections and morning urine spot samples on two occasions, 2-3 months apart. The medium-term reproducibility of urinary AR metabolites was moderate when assessed in 24 h collections and lower in creatinine (CR)-adjusted morning urine. Mean AR metabolite 24 h excretions correlated well with total WG (r(s) 0·31-0·52, P
The alkylresorcinol (AR) content and relative homologue composition were determined in 9 Latvian and 11 Finnish soft breads. ARs were extracted with hot 1-propanol and quantified, using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The total AR content (µg/g dry matter) varied from 560 to 840 in rye breads, from 500 to 700 in Finnish mixed rye and wheat flour breads, from 200 to 300 in Latvian mixed rye and wheat flour breads and from 25 to 30 in white wheat breads. Rye and white wheat breads in the two countries varied only slightly in AR content, but there were wide variations in AR content in mixed flour breads. The AR contents in soft breads could be indicators of bran or fibre content, but not of whole-grain flour content.
Starch in white wheat bread (WB) induces high postprandial glucose and insulin responses. For rye bread (RB), the glucose response is similar, whereas the insulin response is lower. In vitro studies suggest that polyphenol-rich berries may reduce digestion and absorption of starch and thereby suppress postprandial glycemia, but the evidence in humans is limited. We investigated the effects of berries consumed with WB or RB on postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Healthy females (n = 13-20) participated in 3 randomized, controlled, crossover, 2-h meal studies. They consumed WB or RB, both equal to 50 g available starch, with 150 g whole-berry purée or the same amount of bread without berries as reference. In study 1, WB was served with strawberries, bilberries, or lingonberries and in study 2 with raspberries, cloudberries, or chokeberries. In study 3, WB or RB was served with a mixture of berries consisting of equal amounts of strawberries, bilberries, cranberries, and blackcurrants. Strawberries, bilberries, lingonberries, and chokeberries consumed with WB and the berry mixture consumed with WB or RB significantly reduced the postprandial insulin response. Only strawberries (36%) and the berry mixture (with WB, 38%; with RB, 19%) significantly improved the glycemic profile of the breads. These results suggest than when WB is consumed with berries, less insulin is needed for maintenance of normal or slightly improved postprandial glucose metabolism. The lower insulin response to RB compared with WB can also be further reduced by berries.
Barley husks, rye bran, and a fiber residue from oat milk production were processed by heat pretreatment, various separation steps, and treatment with an endoxylanase in order to improve the prebiotic potential of these cereal byproducts. Metabolic functions were intended to improve along with improved microbial activity. The products obtained were included in a high-fat mouse diet so that all diets contained 5% dietary fiber. In addition, high-fat and low-fat controls as well as partially hydrolyzed guar gum were included in the study. The soluble fiber product obtained from rye bran caused a significant increase in the bifidobacteria (log copies of 16S rRNA genes; median (25-75 percentile): 6.38 (6.04-6.66) and 7.47 (7.30-7.74), respectively; p
The major storage proteins from six rye varieties, grown under the same conditions in 1997 and 1998 in Rønhave, Denmark, were analyzed by two-dimensional (2-D) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The proteins were extracted from ground rye kernels with 70% ethanol and separated by 2-D electrophoresis. The gels were scanned, compared using ImageMaster software and the data sets were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) using THE UNSCRAMBLER software. Afterwards MATLAB was used to make a cluster analysis of the varieties based on PCA. The analysis of the gels showed, that the protein patterns (number of different proteins and their isoelectric points and molecular weights) from the six rye varieties were different. Based on the presence of unique cultivar-specific spots it was possible to differentiate between all six varieties if the two harvest years were investigated separately. When the results were combined from the two years five varieties could be differentiated. The results from the PCA confirmed the finding of the unique spots and cluster analysis was made in order to illustrate the results. The combination of the results from 2-D electrophoresis and other grain characteristics showed that one protein spot was located close to the parameters bread volume and bread height.
The aim of this research was to describe the variation in bread consumption within social classes and to link this consumption to health-related lifestyles in Finland from 1978 until 1998.
A cross-sectional survey on health-related behaviour and socio-demographic factors has been conducted annually since 1978.
A random sample of 5000 Finns aged 15-64 years has been drawn annually. The response rate has varied from 84% to 68%.
The consumption of rye bread decreased, but among the female population a slight increase appeared in the 1990s. The consumption of rye bread was associated with a low educational level and a rural place of residence. White bread was consumed less than was rye bread. White bread was consumed more frequently by the less educated in urban areas. Contrary to white bread, the consumption of rye bread was not associated with smoking, exercise or alcohol consumption.
The traditional place of rye bread in the Finnish dietary pattern has remained rather constant. White bread consumption has been associated with an unhealthy lifestyle. As a result, those Finns who are concerned about their health avoid white bread but seem not to associate rye bread with a healthier lifestyle. In Finland, rye bread has a different image to the image of whole-grain or dark brown bread in many other western European countries.
Information on the contamination of Danish cereals and cereal products with Fusarium toxins is limited and the last survey is from 1984/1985. In the present study, the occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), HT-2 toxin, T-2 toxin and zearalenone (ZON) was investigated in flour of common wheat, durum wheat and rye. The samples were collected from 1998 to 2001 from both mills and the retail market in Denmark. A total of 190 flour samples were analysed for DON and NIV and about 60 samples for HT-2, T-2 toxin and ZON. DON was most frequently detected with an incidence rate of 78% over all samples for all years. The contamination level varied considerably from year to year, and for wheat and rye the highest incidence and DON concentrations were found in samples from the 1998 harvest. There were regular and heavy rainfalls in Denmark during the flowering period of the crops that year, and DON was found in all samples, with mean concentrations in wheat and rye flour of 191 microg kg(-1) (n=14) and 99 microg kg(-1) (n=16), respectively. Comparison of data from each harvest year showed higher contents of DON in samples of wheat (range 20-527 microg kg(-1)) than in rye (20-257 microg kg(-1)). Contents of NIV, HT-2 toxin and ZON in samples of wheat and rye were generally low, and even in positive samples the contents were close to the detection limit of the methods. The T-2 toxin was detected in only a few of the wheat samples and in low amounts. However, the toxin was found in about 50% of the rye samples collected during 1998-2000, with a mean content of 49 microg kg(-1) (n=25). Durum wheat flour showed the highest DON contamination level, and all samples (n=33) collected during 2000 and 2001 contained DON with means and medians above 1100 microg kg(-1). Over 70% of the samples contained more than 500 microg kg(-1) DON, and the highest observed concentration was 2591 microg kg(-1). The concentration of T-2 toxin in durum wheat flour was also high with five of the 10 analysed samples containing more than 100 g kg(-1).