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413 records – page 1 of 42.

[About the possibility to detect the fact of corpse transportation from the sea coastline with the subsequent burial].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263372
Source
Sud Med Ekspert. 2015 Jan-Feb;58(1):13-7
Publication Type
Article
Author
D Yu Ponomarev
A V Nikitaev
A M Kurch
Source
Sud Med Ekspert. 2015 Jan-Feb;58(1):13-7
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bone and Bones - pathology
Burial
Cadaver
Drowning - pathology
Forensic Anthropology - methods
Humans
Oceans and Seas
Postmortem Changes
Russia
Seawater
Abstract
The objective of the present work was to detect and describe the new features characterizing the long-term stay of a corpse in seawater followed by its burial on earth. The bones of the skeletonized corpse were found to be covered with mussels and petrified sea worms that can serve as the indicators of staying the corps in seawater and its subsequent transportation from the sea coastline to the inland. These findings can be used to clarify the circumstances of death of the people found in the illegal burial places at the seacoast of maritime areas.
PubMed ID
25874312 View in PubMed
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Abrupt climate change and collapse of deep-sea ecosystems.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95566
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Feb 5;105(5):1556-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-5-2008
Author
Yasuhara Moriaki
Cronin Thomas M
Demenocal Peter B
Okahashi Hisayo
Linsley Braddock K
Author Affiliation
U.S. Geological Survey, 926A National Center, Reston, VA 20192, USA. moriakiyasuhara@gmail.com
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Feb 5;105(5):1556-60
Date
Feb-5-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Climate
Crustacea
Ecosystem
Seawater
Abstract
We investigated the deep-sea fossil record of benthic ostracodes during periods of rapid climate and oceanographic change over the past 20,000 years in a core from intermediate depth in the northwestern Atlantic. Results show that deep-sea benthic community "collapses" occur with faunal turnover of up to 50% during major climatically driven oceanographic changes. Species diversity as measured by the Shannon-Wiener index falls from 3 to as low as 1.6 during these events. Major disruptions in the benthic communities commenced with Heinrich Event 1, the Inter-Allerød Cold Period (IACP: 13.1 ka), the Younger Dryas (YD: 12.9-11.5 ka), and several Holocene Bond events when changes in deep-water circulation occurred. The largest collapse is associated with the YD/IACP and is characterized by an abrupt two-step decrease in both the upper North Atlantic Deep Water assemblage and species diversity at 13.1 ka and at 12.2 ka. The ostracode fauna at this site did not fully recover until approximately 8 ka, with the establishment of Labrador Sea Water ventilation. Ecologically opportunistic slope species prospered during this community collapse. Other abrupt community collapses during the past 20 ka generally correspond to millennial climate events. These results indicate that deep-sea ecosystems are not immune to the effects of rapid climate changes occurring over centuries or less.
PubMed ID
18227517 View in PubMed
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Accumulation of perfluorooctane sulfonate in marine mammals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6747
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2001 Apr 15;35(8):1593-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-15-2001
Author
K. Kannan
J. Koistinen
K. Beckmen
T. Evans
J F Gorzelany
K J Hansen
P D Jones
E. Helle
M. Nyman
J P Giesy
Author Affiliation
National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Department of Zoology, Institute of Environmental Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA. kuruntha@msu.edu
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2001 Apr 15;35(8):1593-8
Date
Apr-15-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alkanesulfonic Acids - blood - pharmacokinetics
Animals
Carnivora
Dolphins
Female
Fluorocarbons - blood - pharmacokinetics
Geography
Liver - chemistry
Male
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Seals, Earless
Seawater
Species Specificity
Whales
Abstract
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a perfluorinated molecule that has recently been identified in the sera of nonindustrially exposed humans. In this study, 247 tissue samples from 15 species of marine mammals collected from Florida, California, and Alaskan coastal waters; and northern Baltic Sea; the Arctic (Spitsbergen); and Sable Island in Canada were analyzed for PFOS. PFOS was detected in liver and blood of marine mammals from most locations including those from Arctic waters. The greatest concentrations of PFOS found in liver and blood were 1520 ng/g wet wt in a bottlenose dolphin from Sarasota Bay, FL, and 475 ng/mL in a ringed seal from the northern Baltic Sea (Bothnian Sea), respectively. No age-dependent increase in PFOS concentrations in marine mammals was observed in the samples analyzed. The occurrence of PFOS in marine mammals from the Arctic waters suggests widespread global distribution of PFOS including remote locations.
PubMed ID
11329707 View in PubMed
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Acoustic signal and noise changes in the Beaufort Sea Pacific Water duct under anticipated future acidification of Arctic Ocean waters.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301804
Source
J Acoust Soc Am. 2017 10; 142(4):1926
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
10-2017
Author
Timothy F Duda
Author Affiliation
Applied Ocean Physics and Engineering Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543, USA.
Source
J Acoust Soc Am. 2017 10; 142(4):1926
Date
10-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Acoustics
Arctic Regions
Carbon Dioxide - analysis
Environmental monitoring
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Models, Theoretical
Pacific Ocean
Seawater - chemistry
Sound Spectrography
Abstract
It is predicted that Arctic Ocean acidity will increase during the next century as a result of carbon dioxide accumulation in the atmosphere and migration into ocean waters. This change has implications for sound transmission because low-pH seawater absorbs less sound than high-pH water. Altered pH will affect sound in the 0.3-10?kHz range if the criterion is met that absorption is the primary cause of attenuation, rather than the alternatives of loss in the ice or seabed. Recent work has exploited sound that meets the criterion, sound trapped in a Beaufort Sea duct composed of Pacific Winter Water underlying Pacific Summer Water. Arctic pH is expected to drop from 8.1 to 7.9 (approximately) over the next 30-50?yr, and effects of this chemical alteration on the intensity levels of this ducted sound, and on noise, are examined here. Sound near 900?Hz is predicted to undergo the greatest change, traveling up to 38% further. At ranges of 100-300?km, sound levels from a source in the duct may increase by 7?dB or more. Noise would also increase, but noise is ducted less efficiently, with the result that 1?kHz noise is predicted to rise approximately 0.5?dB.
PubMed ID
29092580 View in PubMed
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Acute hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exposure does not cause oxidative stress in late-copepodite stage of Calanus finmarchicus.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286855
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2017;80(16-18):820-829
Publication Type
Article
Date
2017
Author
Bjørn Henrik Hansen
Anna Hallmann
Dag Altin
Bjørn Munro Jenssen
Tomasz M Ciesielski
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2017;80(16-18):820-829
Date
2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Copepoda - drug effects
Drug resistance
Food Contamination - prevention & control
Glutathione - metabolism
Hydrogen Peroxide - toxicity
Lethal Dose 50
Malondialdehyde - metabolism
No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level
Norway
Oxidative Stress - drug effects
Reactive Oxygen Species - metabolism
Seawater - chemistry
Toxicity Tests, Acute
Abstract
Use of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for removal of salmon lice in the aquaculture industry has created concern that non-target organisms might be affected during treatment scenarios. The aim of the present study was to examine the potential for H2O2 to produce oxidative stress and reduce survival in one of the most abundant zooplankton species in Norwegian coastal areas, the copepod Calanus finmarchicus. Copepods were subjected to two 96-hr tests: (1) acute toxicity test where mortality was determined and (2) treated copepods were exposed to concentrations below the No Observed Effect Concentration (0.75 mg/L) H2O2 and analyzed for antioxidant enzyme activities, as well as levels of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Compared to available and comparable LC50 values from the literature, our results suggest that C. finmarchicus is highly sensitive to H2O2. However, 96-hr exposure of C. finmarchicus to 0.75 mg H2O2/L did not significantly affect the antioxidant systems even though the concentration is just below the level where mortality is expected. Data suggest that aqueous H2O2 exposure did not cause cellular accumulation with associated oxidative stress, but rather produced acute effects on copepod surface (carapace). Further investigation is required to ensure that aqueous exposure during H2O2 treatment in salmon fish farms does not exert adverse effects on local non-target crustacean species and populations. In particular, studies on copepod developmental stages with a more permeable carapace are warranted.
PubMed ID
28777041 View in PubMed
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Air-water exchange of brominated anisoles in the northern Baltic Sea.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature260092
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2014 Jun 3;48(11):6124-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-3-2014
Author
Terry F Bidleman
Kathleen Agosta
Agneta Andersson
Peter Haglund
Olle Nygren
Matyas Ripszam
Mats Tysklind
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2014 Jun 3;48(11):6124-32
Date
Jun-3-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Movements
Air Pollutants - analysis - chemistry
Anisoles - analysis - chemistry
Bromine - analysis - chemistry
Environmental monitoring
Oceans and Seas
Salinity
Seawater - analysis - chemistry
Sweden
Volatilization
Water Movements
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis - chemistry
Abstract
Bromophenols produced by marine algae undergo O-methylation to form bromoanisoles (BAs), which are exchanged between water and air. BAs were determined in surface water of the northern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Bothnia, consisting of Bothnian Bay and Bothnian Sea) during 2011-2013 and on a transect of the entire Baltic in September 2013. The abundance decreased in the following order: 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (2,4,6-TBA)>2,4-dibromoanisole (2,4-DBA)»2,6-dibromoanisole (2,6-DBA). Concentrations of 2,4-DBA and 2,4,6-TBA in September were higher in the southern than in the northern Baltic and correlated well with the higher salinity in the south. This suggests south-to-north advection and dilution with fresh riverine water enroute, and/or lower production in the north. The abundance in air over the northern Baltic also decreased in the following order: 2,4,6-TBA>2,4-DBA. However, 2,6-DBA was estimated as a lower limit due to breakthrough from polyurethane foam traps used for sampling. Water/air fugacity ratios ranged from 3.4 to 7.6 for 2,4-DBA and from 18 to 94 for 2,4,6-TBA, indicating net volatilization. Flux estimates using the two-film model suggested that volatilization removes 980-1360 kg of total BAs from Bothnian Bay (38000 km2) between May and September. The release of bromine from outgassing of BAs could be up to 4-6% of bromine fluxes from previously reported volatilization of bromomethanes and bromochloromethanes.
PubMed ID
24811233 View in PubMed
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Algibacter amylolyticus sp. nov., isolated from intertidal sediment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature266892
Source
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2015 May;65(Pt 5):1556-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2015
Author
De-Chao Zhang
Jiang Wu
Kathrin Neuner
Jianting Yao
Rosa Margesin
Source
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2015 May;65(Pt 5):1556-60
Date
May-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bacterial Typing Techniques
Base Composition
DNA, Bacterial - genetics
Fatty Acids - chemistry
Flavobacteriaceae - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Geologic Sediments - microbiology
Islands
Molecular Sequence Data
Nucleic Acid Hybridization
Phosphatidylethanolamines - chemistry
Phylogeny
Pigmentation
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S - genetics
Russia
Seawater - microbiology
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Vitamin K 2 - analogs & derivatives - chemistry
Abstract
A Gram-reaction-negative, rod-shaped, yellow-pigmented, motile by gliding bacterial strain, designated RU-4-M-4(T), was isolated from intertidal sediment of Sakhalin Island in Russia. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain RU-4-M-4(T) was related to the genus Algibacter and had highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Algibacter pectinivorans KACC 14153(T) (97.2%). The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 3-OH, C15: 0 and iso-C15 : 1 G. The predominant menaquinone was MK-6. The polar lipid profile contained phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified aminolipids and two unidentified lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain RU-4-M-4(T) was 36.4 mol%. Combined data from phenotypic, phylogenetic and DNA-DNA relatedness studies demonstrated that strain RU-4-M-4(T) is a representative of a novel species of the genus Algibacter , for which we propose the name Algibacter amylolyticus sp. nov. (type strain RU-4-M-4(T)?=LMG 28383(T)?=DSM 29199(T)).
PubMed ID
25713044 View in PubMed
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Allochthonous inputs of riverine picocyanobacteria to coastal waters in the Arctic Ocean.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95689
Source
FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2007 Feb;59(2):356-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2007
Author
Waleron Malgorzata
Waleron Krzysztof
Vincent Warwick F
Wilmotte Annick
Author Affiliation
Centre for Protein Engineering, Institute of Chemistry B6, Sart Tilman, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium.
Source
FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2007 Feb;59(2):356-65
Date
Feb-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Climate
Cyanobacteria - classification - genetics
DNA, Bacterial - analysis
DNA, Ribosomal - analysis
Gene Library
Molecular Sequence Data
Phylogeny
Plastids - genetics
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S - genetics
Rivers - microbiology
Seawater - microbiology
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Abstract
The observed onset of climate change at high northern latitudes has highlighted the need to establish current baseline conditions in the Arctic Ocean, and has raised concern about the potential for the invasion and growth of biota that have warm temperature optima, such as cyanobacteria. In this study, we used 16S rRNA gene sequences as a molecular marker to evaluate the hypothesis that Arctic rivers provide a major inoculum of cyanobacteria into the coastal Arctic Ocean. Surface samples were collected along a transect extending from the Mackenzie River (Northwest Territories, Canada), across its estuary, to 200 km offshore at the edge of the perennial Arctic pack ice (Beaufort Sea). The highest picocyanobacteria concentrations occurred in the river, with concentrations an order of magnitude lower at offshore marine stations. The 16S rRNA gene clone libraries of five surface samples and five strains along this gradient showed that the cyanobacterial sequences were divided into eight operational taxonomic units (OTUs), six OTUs closely related to freshwater and brackish Synechococcus and two OTUs of filamentous cyanobacteria. No typically marine Synechococcus sequences and no Prochlorococcus sequences were recovered. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of an allochthonous origin of picocyanobacteria in the coastal Arctic Ocean, and imply survival but little net growth of picocyanobacteria under the present conditions in northern high-latitude seas.
PubMed ID
17132157 View in PubMed
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Alteration of host-pathogen interactions in the wake of climate change - Increasing risk for shellfish associated infections?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302902
Source
Environ Res. 2018 02; 161:425-438
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review
Date
02-2018
Author
Bodil E Hernroth
Susanne P Baden
Author Affiliation
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Kristineberg 566, SE-451 78 Fiskebäckskil, Sweden; Dept. of Natural Science, Kristianstad University, SE-291 88 Kristianstad, Sweden. Electronic address: bodil.hernroth@kva.se.
Source
Environ Res. 2018 02; 161:425-438
Date
02-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review
Keywords
Climate change
Host-Pathogen Interactions
Humans
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Norway
Seawater
Shellfish - parasitology
Abstract
The potential for climate-related spread of infectious diseases through marine systems has been highlighted in several reports. With this review we want to draw attention to less recognized mechanisms behind vector-borne transmission pathways to humans. We have focused on how the immune systems of edible marine shellfish, the blue mussels and Norway lobsters, are affected by climate related environmental stressors. Future ocean acidification (OA) and warming due to climate change constitute a gradually increasing persistent stress with negative trade-off for many organisms. In addition, the stress of recurrent hypoxia, inducing high levels of bioavailable manganese (Mn) is likely to increase in line with climate change. We summarized that OA, hypoxia and elevated levels of Mn did have an overall negative effect on immunity, in some cases also with synergistic effects. On the other hand, moderate increase in temperature seems to have a stimulating effect on antimicrobial activity and may in a future warming scenario counteract the negative effects. However, rising sea surface temperature and climate events causing high land run-off promote the abundance of naturally occurring pathogenic Vibrio and will in addition, bring enteric pathogens which are circulating in society into coastal waters. Moreover, the observed impairments of the immune defense enhance the persistence and occurrence of pathogens in shellfish. This may increase the risk for direct transmission of pathogens to consumers. It is thus essential that in the wake of climate change, sanitary control of coastal waters and seafood must recognize and adapt to the expected alteration of host-pathogen interactions.
PubMed ID
29202413 View in PubMed
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413 records – page 1 of 42.