Concentrations of worldwide fallout 137Cs were measured in the lichen-caribou-Eskimo food chain of northern Alaska during the period 1962-79. Pronounced inputs of fallout occurred after major nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere and 137Cs was transmitted through the food chain to Eskimos with about a 2-yr delay due to environmental parameters. Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) meat sampled during spring harvest contained 4 times the 137Cs concentration of lichens obtained from their winter range. Calculated caribou meat ingestion rates of Anaktuvuk Pass Eskimos during winter ranged from approximately 1 kg/day in 1964 to 0.16 kg/day in 1977. Several environmental factors affected seasonal patterns and amounts of 137Cs transferred through the food chain. Maximum 137Cs concentrations of approximately 20 nCi/kg body weight in ESkimos occurred in 1964 and have now decreased to approximately 0.5 nCi/kg, largely because of cultural and political factors. Radiation doses from 137Cs body burdens during the study period ranged from 60 mrad/yr in 1962 to approximately 140 mrad/yr during the 1962-64 maxima and decreased to 8 mrad/yr in 1979.
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 832.
The bacterial flora of the forehead and back of Eskimo and Indian villagers in arctic Alaska was determined in midsummer and in winter (temperature -29 degrees to -46 degrees C). Specimens collected by the wet swab method were transported overnight, chilled, to Seattle in buffered diluent with Triton X-100. Control tests showed good survival of principal skin organisms with moderate or large initial populations and a disproportionately greater loss with an initial sparse population. Results of these studies are compared with earlier studies of the forehead flora of a Seattle urban population. On most Alaskan subjects Propionibacterium acnes was more abundant than staphylococci on both sites and both organisms had greater population densities on the forehead than on the back. Population densities for P. acnes varied from none detected to more than 10(6) per cm2 on the forehead and 10(5) per cm2 on the back. For coagulase-negative staphylococci the range was from none detected to more than 10(5) per cm2 on the forehead and the back. The proportion of subjects with relatively abundant or relatively sparse populations of P. acnes and of staphylococci did not change seasonally. Of 51 staphylococcal isolates, 65% were S. epidermidis, 22% S. capitis, and 10% S. hominis. P. saccharolyticus was found on a minority of subjects on both sites. The kinds of organisms found on the forehead and their variable individual population densities were essentially the same on the Alaskan villagers and the Seattle subjects.
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 1867.
The present survey of enteric infections in the Eskimo population of the lower Kuskokwim River area in southwestern Alaska was initiated in August 1955. Information desired included: (1) prevalence of diarrhea and of bacterial and parasitic agents, (2) age groups involved, (3) time of year of occurrence, and (4) identity of bacterial and parasitic agents. Procedures and techniques have already been given. In general, a single fecal specimen per individual (human and canine) was examined. Specimens were cultured in the field, and suspected bacterial pathogens were isolated and held for further study in the Anchorage laboratory. Specimens for parasitological examination were placed in MIF fluid and held until return to the laboratory, with examinations made at a later date. Ten villages were visited between August 1955 and September 1956, which were in coastal, tundra, and river locations. Populations ranged between 48 and 650 per village, with an estimated total of 2,378. Nine fish camps, located over a 12-mile stretch on the Kuskokwim River between Bethel and Napakiak, were visited in August 1956. The people who live in these camps for two to three months each summer come from coastal and tundra villages. Camp populations ranged between 24 and 160, with a total of approximately 638. Interviews were held in 312 village dwellings during August-November, 1955 and July-September, 1956; and in 96 fish camp tents during August, 1956. Interviewing was started at one end of the village or fish camp and carried out progressively in every occupied house or tent in the community, with exceptions in the two largest villages, where about 80 per cent of the dwellings were visited.
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 1682.
Cited in: Fortuine, Robert. 1968. The Health of the Eskimos: a bibliography 1857-1967. Dartmouth College Libraries. Citation number 680.
Alaska Medical Library - From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 1520.