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An epidemiological study on gender differences in self-reported seasonal changes in mood and behaviour in a general population of northern Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature45647
Source
Nord J Psychiatry. 2004;58(6):429-37
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
Jayanti Chotai
Kristina Smedh
Carolina Johansson
Lars-Göran Nilsson
Rolf Adolfsson
Author Affiliation
Division of Psychiatry, Department of Clinical Sciences, University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden. jayanti.chotai@vll.se
Source
Nord J Psychiatry. 2004;58(6):429-37
Date
2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Catchment Area (Health)
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Population Surveillance - methods
Prevalence
Prospective Studies
Seasonal Affective Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology
Self Assessment (Psychology)
Severity of Illness Index
Sex Distribution
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Gender differences have been reported regarding symptoms, prevalence and heritability of seasonal affective disorders (SAD). We focus on gender aspects in this study of self-reported seasonal changes in mood and behaviour in a general population. The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) was completed by 2620 adults (55.6% women) aged 35-85 years, enrolled in the Betula prospective random cohort study of Umeå, Sweden. October to February turned out to be suitable winter months. SAD was found in 2.2% and sub-syndromal SAD (S-SAD) in 5.7%. Women had about 1.5 times higher prevalences than men, and seasonality problems decreased with age in both genders. Preference for eating least was distributed with a peak in summer, whereas preference for eating most had a major peak in winter (winter eaters) and a minor peak in summer (summer eaters). Significantly more of winter eaters in women, and significantly more of summer eaters in men, felt worst in winter. Seasonal change in weight was considered significantly as a problem by women but not by men. Winter behaviour of sleeping most was considered significantly as a problem by men but not by women. Women reacted significantly to temperature-related changes (negatively to cold/short days and positively to hot/long days), whereas men reacted significantly to sunshine-related changes (negatively to cloudy days and positively to sunny days). Subtle gender differences may thus underlie the pathophysiology of seasonal problems. Studies of an eventual efficacy of treating SAD women with raised ambient temperature, and gender-specific comparisons with other therapies, would be of interest.
PubMed ID
16195086 View in PubMed
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Anxiety disorders and anxiety symptoms in a clinic sample of seasonal and non-seasonal depressives.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature221171
Source
J Affect Disord. 1993 May;28(1):51-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1993
Author
A J Levitt
R T Joffe
D. Brecher
C. MacDonald
Author Affiliation
Mood Disorders Program, Clarke Institute of Psychiatry, Toronto, Canada.
Source
J Affect Disord. 1993 May;28(1):51-6
Date
May-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anxiety - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Anxiety Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Comorbidity
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario - epidemiology
Personality Inventory
Seasonal Affective Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Abstract
Thirty-eight patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) were compared with 33 non-seasonal recurrent major depressives (non-SAD) who presented during the winter months for differences in the prevalence of concurrent anxiety disorders and the impact of anxiety on treatment response. SAD patients received light therapy, whereas non-SAD patients received antidepressant medications. There was no differences in the prevalence of any anxiety disorder, or on scores of anxiety on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression between the SAD and non-SAD groups. The presence of any anxiety disorder was associated with a better response rate in SAD patients, and an inferior response rate in non-SAD patients. The findings refute previous suggestions that anxiety is more common in SAD than in non-SAD, but suggest that the presence of anxiety may be associated with differential treatment response rates.
PubMed ID
8326080 View in PubMed
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Arctic cognition: a study of cognitive performance in summer and winter at 69 degrees N.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature3317
Source
Appl Cogn Psychol. 1999 Dec;13(6):561-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1999
Author
T. Brennen
M. Martinussen
B O Hansen
O. Hjemdal
Author Affiliation
University of Tromso, Norway. Timb@psyk.uit.no
Source
Appl Cogn Psychol. 1999 Dec;13(6):561-80
Date
Dec-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Arctic Regions
Attention
Cognition
Comparative Study
Darkness
Female
Humans
Light
Male
Memory
Middle Aged
Norway
Periodicity
Psychological Tests
Reaction Time
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Seasonal Affective Disorder - psychology
Seasons
Abstract
Evidence has accumulated over the past 15 years that affect in humans is cyclical. In winter there is a tendency to depression, with remission in summer, and this effect is stronger at higher latitudes. In order to determine whether human cognition is similarly rhythmical, this study investigated the cognitive processes of 100 participants living at 69 degrees N. Participants were tested in summer and winter on a range of cognitive tasks, including verbal memory, attention and simple reaction time tasks. The seasonally counterbalanced design and the very northerly latitude of this study provide optimal conditions for detecting impaired cognitive performance in winter, and the conclusion is negative: of five tasks with seasonal effects, four had disadvantages in summer. Like the menstrual cycle, the circannual cycle appears to influence mood but not cognition.
PubMed ID
11543349 View in PubMed
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[Bipolar affective disorder. A retrospective study of 158 patients in a well-defined geographical region]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature46313
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1998 Sep 7;160(37):5353-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-7-1998
Author
E M Christensen
A. Gjerris
C. Gjerris
J K Larsen
Author Affiliation
H:S Bispebjerg Hospital, psykiatrisk afdeling E.
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1998 Sep 7;160(37):5353-7
Date
Sep-7-1998
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Bipolar Disorder - diagnosis - etiology - mortality
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
English Abstract
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Patient Admission
Retrospective Studies
Seasonal Affective Disorder - diagnosis - etiology - mortality
Sunlight
Weather
Abstract
A cohort of 158 patients was identified from 723 patients admitted in 1990 or treated as outpatients in 1991 for affective disorders in three university hospitals in Copenhagen, covering a well-defined catchment area. The cohort was subclassified for seasonal pattern according to DSM-III-R. Meteorological data of temperature, hours of sunshine, rainfall and wind-velocity expressed as mean values/month were obtained from the Institute of Meteorology in Copenhagen. There was no relationship between the annual dis- tribution of affective episodes and meteorological data, neither in the total cohort nor in the subgroup of patients with seasonal patterns The present study does not support the hypothesis that a relation exists between start of a new episode and the season or climatic condition.
PubMed ID
9748861 View in PubMed
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The Can-SAD study: a randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of light therapy and fluoxetine in patients with winter seasonal affective disorder.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature169521
Source
Am J Psychiatry. 2006 May;163(5):805-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2006
Author
Raymond W Lam
Anthony J Levitt
Robert D Levitan
Murray W Enns
Rachel Morehouse
Erin E Michalak
Edwin M Tam
Author Affiliation
Mood Disorders Centre, UBC Hospital, 2255 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A1. r.lam@ubc.ca
Source
Am J Psychiatry. 2006 May;163(5):805-12
Date
May-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Canada
Combined Modality Therapy
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Double-Blind Method
Female
Fluoxetine - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Humans
Male
Patient satisfaction
Phototherapy - adverse effects - methods
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Seasonal Affective Disorder - drug therapy - psychology - therapy
Seasons
Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
Light therapy and antidepressants have shown comparable efficacy in separate studies of seasonal affective disorder treatment, but few studies have directly compared the two treatments. This study compared the effectiveness of light therapy and an antidepressant within a single trial.
This double-blind, randomized, controlled trial was conducted in four Canadian centers over three winter seasons. Patients met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder with a seasonal (winter) pattern and had scores > or = 23 on the 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. After a baseline observation week, eligible patients were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of double-blind treatment with either 1) 10,000-lux light treatment and a placebo capsule, or 2) 100-lux light treatment (placebo light) and fluoxetine, 20 mg/day. Light treatment was applied for 30 minutes/day in the morning with a fluorescent white-light box; placebo light boxes used neutral density filters.
A total of 96 patients were randomly assigned to a treatment condition. Intent-to-treat analysis showed overall improvement with time, with no differences between treatments. There were also no differences between the light and fluoxetine treatment groups in clinical response rates (67% for each group) or remission rates (50% and 54%, respectively). Post hoc testing found that light-treated patients had greater improvement at 1 week but not at other time points. Fluoxetine was associated with greater treatment-emergent adverse events (agitation, sleep disturbance, palpitations), but both treatments were generally well-tolerated with no differences in overall number of adverse effects.
Light treatment showed earlier response onset and lower rate of some adverse events relative to fluoxetine, but there were no other significant differences in outcome between light therapy and antidepressant medication. Although limited by lack of a double-placebo condition, this study supports the effectiveness and tolerability of both treatments for seasonal affective disorder and suggests that other clinical factors, including patient preference, should guide selection of first-line treatment.
Notes
Comment In: Evid Based Ment Health. 2007 Feb;10(1):2617255395
PubMed ID
16648320 View in PubMed
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Can transcranial brain-targeted bright light treatment via ear canals be effective in relieving symptoms in seasonal affective disorder? A pilot study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature127421
Source
Med Hypotheses. 2012 Apr;78(4):511-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2012
Author
Markku Timonen
Juuso Nissilä
Anu Liettu
Jari Jokelainen
Heidi Jurvelin
Antti Aunio
Pirkko Räsänen
Timo Takala
Author Affiliation
University of Oulu, Institute of Health Sciences (General Practice), P.O. Box 5000, FIN-90014 Oulu, Finland. markku.timonen@oulu.fi
Source
Med Hypotheses. 2012 Apr;78(4):511-5
Date
Apr-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Brain - radiation effects
Finland
Humans
Phototherapy - methods
Pilot Projects
Regression Analysis
Seasonal Affective Disorder - therapy
Abstract
Bright light therapy (BLT) is widely accepted as first-line treatment of seasonal affective disorder (SAD). However, the mechanism of action of BLT is still widely unknown. On the other hand, in mammals, light penetrates the skull bone and reaches the brain, and extra ocular transcranial phototransduction has physiological influences such as changed reproductive cycles and increased brain serotonin levels. Therefore, we challenged the existing conceptual framework that light therapy would only be mediated through the eyes. Consequently, we run a pilot study on the putative effect of transcranial bright light in the treatment of SAD. The light was produced using light-emitting diodes (LEDs), which were attached to earplugs. The amount of photic energy was 6.0-8.5 lumens in both ear canals, and the length of treatment was 8 or 12 min five times a week during a four-week study period. Subjects were recruited through advertisements in the city of Oulu, Finland (latitude 65°01'N) during 14 January 2009-03 February 2009. The final patient series consisted of 13 (aged 37.1 ± 7.2 years) physically healthy indoor workers suffering from SAD according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. Severity of depressive symptoms was assessed using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-21. Furthermore, severity of anxiety symptoms was measured by the 14-item Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA). The HAMD-17 mean sum score at screening was 23.1 ± 1.6. Ten out of 13 SAD patients (76.9%) achieved full remission (i.e., HAMD-17 sum score = 7), and 92.3% (12/13) at least 50% reduction in HAMD-17 sum scores at "Week 4". By using a mixed regression model of repeated measures (AR-1) controlling for age, gender, and HAMD-17 mean sum score at screening, significant differences were found comparing the HAMD-17 mean sum scores of "Week 0" with the corresponding scores at the "Week 3" (t=-2.05, p=0.045) and "Week 4" visit (t=-2.77, p=0.008). Correspondingly, significant differences were found comparing the BDI-21 mean sum scores (15.2 ± 6.7) of "Week 0" with the corresponding scores at the "Week 3" (t=-2.37, p=0.021) and "Week 4" visit (t=-3.65, p
PubMed ID
22296809 View in PubMed
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Cerebral hemispheric asymmetry of function in seasonal affective disorder and light treatment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature46662
Source
Pages 325-326 in B.D. Postl et al., eds. Circumpolar Health 90. Proceedings of the International Congress on Circumpolar Health, 8th, Whitehorse, Yukon, May 20-25, 1990. Arctic Medical Research 1991; Suppl.
Publication Type
Article
Date
1991
  1 document  
Author
N V Volf
N I Senkova
K V Danilenko
Author Affiliation
Biological Rhythms Research Laboratory, Siberian Branch, Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR, Novosibirsk.
Source
Pages 325-326 in B.D. Postl et al., eds. Circumpolar Health 90. Proceedings of the International Congress on Circumpolar Health, 8th, Whitehorse, Yukon, May 20-25, 1990. Arctic Medical Research 1991; Suppl.
Date
1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Dominance, Cerebral
Humans
Phototherapy
Seasonal Affective Disorder - physiopathology - therapy
PubMed ID
1365142 View in PubMed
Documents
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Characteristics of winter depression in the Oslo area (60 degrees N).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature46573
Source
Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1993 Aug;88(2):111-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1993
Author
O. Lingjaerde
T. Reichborn-Kjennerud
Author Affiliation
Gaustad Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
Source
Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1993 Aug;88(2):111-20
Date
Aug-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Comparative Study
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Prevalence
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales - statistics & numerical data
Retrospective Studies
Seasonal Affective Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Severity of Illness Index
Abstract
This is the first comprehensive description of winter depression (WD), as part of seasonal affective disorder (SAD), from Norway, and one of the very few from so far north. A total of 128 media-recruited people had first been screened with the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire and were thereafter personally interviewed. The criteria for DSM-III-R mood disorder, seasonal pattern, were satisfied by 85%, whereas 73% satisfied the criteria of Rosenthal et al. for SAD. Seven percent were diagnosed as subsyndromal SAD. The main characteristics of our patient group were in reasonable accordance with other clinical SAD materials: there were 81% women; the mean age was 44 years (range: 20 to 76); the mean age for SAD debut was 24 years (range: 4 to 71); and the duration of WD was most often from October to March or April. Only 12% had ever been manic or hypomanic in summer. During their WD, most patients suffered at least one of the symptoms hypersomnia, hyperphagia or carbohydrate craving; 16% also had a craving for fatty food in winter, but this may be considered "normal" at this northerly latitude.
PubMed ID
8213203 View in PubMed
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Chromaticity of daylight: is the spectral composition of daylight an aetiological element in winter depression?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature45795
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2004 May;63(2):145-56
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2004
Author
Jóhann Axelsson
Sólveig Ragnarsdóttir
Jörgen Pind
Ragnar Sigbjörnsson
Author Affiliation
Institute of Physiology, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2004 May;63(2):145-56
Date
May-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Circadian Rhythm
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Light
Prevalence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Seasonal Affective Disorder - epidemiology - etiology
Spectrum Analysis
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Surveys on winter depression in Iceland indicate a significantly lower prevalence rate of winter SAD than expected according to Iceland's latitude. Research into daylight availability in Iceland failed to reveal factors contributing to higher average daylight availability than predicted by latitude. In view of the well-known healing effects of bright light treatment, we propose that properties of daylight other than daylight availability may ease the symptoms of winter depression. METHOD: We analysed the spectral composition of daylight in Iceland as expressed by its chromaticity and assessed its seasonal and diurnal variations. The colorimetric properties of daylight during the year 1998 are dealt with in detail. Perception of daylight is modelled, applying the chromaticity model of MacLeod and Boynton along with environmental data on spectral irradiance recorded on location at 64 degrees 8.8' N and 21 degrees 55.8' W in Reykjavik, Iceland, and recently published data on cone fundamentals by Stockman and Sharpe. RESULTS: The main finding is that blue hue dominates the colour of the sky, with high correlated colour temperature, without significant seasonal variations. Diurnal variations are, however, observed. Furthermore, significant deviation from 'standard' sky is detected. CONCLUSIONS: It is not known whether the observed chromaticity of daylight is a significant factor in explaining the unexpectedly low prevalence rate of seasonal affective disorder in Iceland.
PubMed ID
15253481 View in PubMed
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Confounding factors and seasonal depression.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature3302
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2003 Sep;62(3):310
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2003
Author
Pierre Schulz
François Curtin
Author Affiliation
Clinical Psychopharmacology Unit, HUG 1225 Geneva, Switzerland. pierre.schulz@hcuge.ch
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2003 Sep;62(3):310
Date
Sep-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Comparative Study
Depressive Disorder - economics - psychology
Norway
Russia
Seasonal Affective Disorder - economics - psychology
Socioeconomic Factors
Notes
Comment On: Int J Circumpolar Health. 1999 Jan;58(1):14-2310208066
PubMed ID
14594206 View in PubMed
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112 records – page 1 of 12.