Skip header and navigation

Refine By

87 records – page 1 of 9.

Accelerated Arctic land warming and permafrost degradation during rapid sea ice loss

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature275999
Source
Geophysical Research Letters. 2008 Jun;35(11):1-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2008
Author
Lawrence, DM
Slater, AG
Tomas, RA
Holland, MM
Deser, C
Source
Geophysical Research Letters. 2008 Jun;35(11):1-6
Date
Jun-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Albedo
Arctic sea ice
Arctic warming
Land temperature
Permafrost
Abstract
Coupled climate models and recent observational evidence suggest that Arctic sea ice may undergo abrupt periods of loss during the next fifty years. Here, we evaluate how rapid sea ice loss affects terrestrial Arctic climate and ground thermal state in the Community Climate System Model. We find that simulated western Arctic land warming trends during rapid sea ice loss are 3.5 times greater than secular 21st century climate-change trends. The accelerated warming signal penetrates up to 1500 km inland and is apparent throughout most of the year, peaking in autumn. Idealized experiments using the Community Land Model, with improved permafrost dynamics, indicate that an accelerated warming period substantially increases ground heat accumulation. Enhanced heat accumulation leads to rapid degradation of warm permafrost and may increase the vulnerability of colder permafrost to degradation under continued warming. Taken together, these results imply a link between rapid sea ice loss and permafrost health.
Less detail

Advancing Oil Spill Response in Ice-Covered Waters.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301424
Source
Prince William Sound Oil Spill Recovery Institute and United States Arctic Research Commission. 19 pages.
Publication Type
Report
Date
2004
: Diver's view of frazil ice crystals beneath a solid sea ice sheet during an experimental spill of emulsified crude oil. Note orange fabric skirt hanging through the ice to contain the spill (background), and oil drops coating the underside of the ice (foreground). Ref. Buist et al., (1983) in
  1 document  
Author
DF Dickins Associates Ltd
Source
Prince William Sound Oil Spill Recovery Institute and United States Arctic Research Commission. 19 pages.
Date
2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Report
File Size
1125061
Keywords
Sea ice
Oil spills
Response strategies
Abstract
The objective of this project is to identify programs and research and development projects that improve the ability of responders to deal with accidental oil spills in fresh or salt-water marine environments where there is ice. This includes spills that occur on top of or underneath solid, stable ice extending out from shore (land-fast), into an area of drifting ice floes (pack ice), or onto an ice-covered shoreline.
Documents
Less detail

Aragonite undersaturation in the Arctic Ocean: Effects of ocean acidification and sea ice melt

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature276001
Source
Science. 2009 Nov;326(5956):1098-1100
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2009
Author
Yamamoto-Kawai, M
McLaughlin, FA
Carmack, EC
Nishino, S
Shimada, K
Author Affiliation
Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Institute of Ocean Sciences, Sidney, British Columbia
Source
Science. 2009 Nov;326(5956):1098-1100
Date
Nov-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aragonite
Arctic Ocean
Calcium Carbonate
Canada Basin
Carbon dioxide emissions
Sea ice melt
Abstract
The increase in anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions and attendant increase in ocean acidification and sea ice melt act together to decrease the saturation state of calcium carbonate in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean. In 2008, surface waters were undersaturated with respect to aragonite, a relatively soluble form of calcium carbonate found in plankton and invertebrates. Undersaturation was found to be a direct consequence of the recent extensive melting of sea ice in the Canada Basin. In addition, the retreat of the ice edge well past the shelf-break has produced conditions favorable to enhanced upwelling of subsurface, aragonite-undersaturated water onto the Arctic continental shelf. Undersaturation will affect both planktonic and benthic calcifying biota and therefore the composition of the Arctic ecosystem.
Less detail

Arctic climate change: Observed and modelled temperature and sea-ice variability

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature276002
Source
Tellus. 2004 56(4):328-341
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
  1 website  
Author
Johannessen, OM
Bengtsson, L
Miles, MW
Kuzmina, SI
Semenov, VA
Alekseev, GV
Nagurnyi, AP
Zakharov, VF
Bobylev, LP
Pettersson, LH
Hasselmann, K
Cattle, HP
Source
Tellus. 2004 56(4):328-341
Date
2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic climate system
Greenhouse-gas forcing
Observational data
Predictions
Sea-ice variability
Abstract
Changes apparent in the arctic climate system in recent years require evaluation in a century-scale perspective in order to assess the Arctic's response to increasing anthropogenic greenhouse-gas forcing. Here, a new set of century and multidecadal-scale observational data of surface air temperature (SAT) and sea ice is used in combination with ECHAM4 and HadCM3 coupled atmosphere-ice-ocean global model simulations in order to better determine and understand arctic climate variability. We show that two pronounced twentieth-century warming events, both amplified in the Arctic, were linked to sea-ice variability. SAT observations and model simulations indicate that the nature of the arctic warming in the last two decades is distinct from the early twentieth-century warm period. It is suggested strongly that the earlier warming was natural internal climate-system variability, whereas the recent SAT changes are a response to anthropogenic forcing. The area of arctic sea ice is furthermore observed to have decreased ~8 x 105 km2 (7.4%) in the past quarter century, with record-low summer ice coverage in September 2002. A set of model predictions is used to quantify changes in the ice cover through the twenty-first century, with greater reductions expected in summer than winter. In summer, a predominantly sea-ice-free Arctic is predicted for the end of this century.
Online Resources
Less detail

Arctic Climate Feedbacks: Global Implications.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300995
Source
World Wildlife Foundation (WWF), International Arctic Programme, Oslo. 97 pages..
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
Date
2009
earlier than expected. As a result, climate change is already destabilising important arctic systems including sea ice, the Greenland Ice Sheet, mountain glaciers, and aspects of the arctic carbon cycle including altering patterns of frozen soils and vegetation and increasing methane release from
  1 document  
Author
Sommerkorn, Martin
Hassol, Susan Joy
Source
World Wildlife Foundation (WWF), International Arctic Programme, Oslo. 97 pages..
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
File Size
11404730
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Air temperature
Sea ice
Greenland Ice Sheet
Glacier retreat
Oceans
Permafrost warming and thawing
Notes
ISBN: 9782940443000
Documents
Less detail

Arctic Environmental Security and Inuit Communities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297323
Source
22 slides.
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Date
April 18, 2016
/availability) • Contaminants (quality) • High cost of hunting equipment (access) • Transmission of knowledge, lack of hunters (access) • High cost of store-bought food (access) 4/18/2016 3 “Life in the Arctic is dependent on movement, and sea ice is integral to that movement” - The Sea Ice Is Our
  1 document  
Author
Johnson, Noor
Author Affiliation
Senior Policy Advisor, Office of International Relations, Smithsonian Institution
Source
22 slides.
Date
April 18, 2016
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Greenland
Russia
U.S.
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
File Size
1339824
Keywords
Inuit
Climate change
Food security
Housing
Sea ice
Documents
Less detail

Arctic Marine Transport Workshop, Held at Scott Polar Research Institute Cambridge University United Kingdom, 28-30 September 2004.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301423
Source
Institute of the North with U.S. Arctic Research Commission and the International Arctic Science Committee. .
Publication Type
Report
Date
2005
Author
Brigham, Lawson
Ellis, Ben
Source
Institute of the North with U.S. Arctic Research Commission and the International Arctic Science Committee. .
Date
2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Report
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Marine safety
Sea ice
Climate change
Shipping and transportation
Oceans and Seas
Abstract
This report summarizes conclusions reached by experts that met in 2004 to discuss Arctic marine transport, international marine safety, sea ice and climate change. The report includes a research agenda and identifies critical issues relevant to the future of Arctic shipping.
Less detail

Arctic Ocean sea ice drift origin derived from artificial radionuclides

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature102087
Source
Science of the Total Environment. 2010 Jul;408(16):3349-3358
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2010
Author
Cámara-Mor, P
Masqué, P
Garcia-Orellana, J
Cochran, JK
Mas, JL
Chamizo, E
Hanfland, C
Author Affiliation
Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain
Source
Science of the Total Environment. 2010 Jul;408(16):3349-3358
Date
Jul-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Oceans and Seas
Radioisotopes--analysis
Sea ice
Abstract
Since the 1950s, nuclear weapon testing and releases from the nuclear industry have introduced anthropogenic radionuclides into the sea, and in many instances their ultimate fate are the bottom sediments. The Arctic Ocean is one of the most polluted in this respect, because, in addition to global fallout, it is impacted by regional fallout from nuclear weapon testing, and indirectly by releases from nuclear reprocessing facilities and nuclear accidents. Sea-ice formed in the shallow continental shelves incorporate sediments with variable concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides that are transported through the Arctic Ocean and are finally released in the melting areas. In this work, we present the results of anthropogenic radionuclide analyses of sea-ice sediments (SIS) collected on five cruises from different Arctic regions and combine them with a database including prior measurements of these radionuclides in SIS. The distribution of (137)Cs and (239,240)Pu activities and the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio in SIS showed geographical differences, in agreement with the two main sea ice drift patterns derived from the mean field of sea-ice motion, the Transpolar Drift and Beaufort Gyre, with the Fram Strait as the main ablation area. A direct comparison of data measured in SIS samples against those reported for the potential source regions permits identification of the regions from which sea ice incorporates sediments. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio in SIS may be used to discern the origin of sea ice from the Kara-Laptev Sea and the Alaskan shelf. However, if the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio is similar to global fallout, it does not provide a unique diagnostic indicator of the source area, and in such cases, the source of SIS can be constrained with a combination of the (137)Cs and (239,240)Pu activities. Therefore, these anthropogenic radionuclides can be used in many instances to determine the geographical source area of sea-ice.
Less detail

Arctic Ocean synthesis: analysis of climate change impacts in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas with strategies for future research.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297070
Source
184 p.
Publication Type
Report
Date
December 2008
................................................................................................................................ 3 PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY ............................................................................................................. 6 CHEMICAL OCEANOGRAPHY.......................................................................................................... 18 SEA ICE
  1 document  
Author
Hopcroft, Russ
Bluhm, Bodil
Gradinger, Rolf
Author Affiliation
Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Alaska, Fairbanks
Source
184 p.
Date
December 2008
Language
English
Geographic Location
Russia
U.S.
Publication Type
Report
File Size
3882185
Keywords
Chukchi Sea
Beaufort Sea
Sea ice
Coastal erosion
Permafrost
Sea level
Marine wildlife
Documents
Less detail

Arctic sea ice decline: Faster than forecast

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature276005
Source
Geophysical Research Letters. 2007 May;34(9):1-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2007
Author
Stroeve, J
Holland, MM
Meier, W
Scambos, T
Serreze, M
Source
Geophysical Research Letters. 2007 May;34(9):1-5
Date
May-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic sea ice
GHG
Greenhouse gas loading
Models
Observations
Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report
Abstract
From 1953 to 2006, Arctic sea ice extent at the end of the melt season in September has declined sharply. All models participating in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC AR4) show declining Arctic ice cover over this period. However, depending on the time window for analysis, none or very few individual model simulations show trends comparable to observations. If the multi-model ensemble mean time series provides a true representation of forced change by greenhouse gas (GHG) loading, 33-38% of the observed September trend from 1953-2006 is externally forced, growing to 47-57% from 1979-2006. Given evidence that as a group, the models underestimate the GHG response, the externally forced component may be larger. While both observed and modeled Antarctic winter trends are small, comparisons for summer are confounded by generally poor model performance.
Less detail

87 records – page 1 of 9.