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Active transportation environments surrounding Canadian schools.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature130132
Source
Can J Public Health. 2011 Sep-Oct;102(5):364-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
Sean O'Loghlen
J William Pickett
Ian Janssen
Author Affiliation
School of Medicine, Queen's University, Kingston, ON.
Source
Can J Public Health. 2011 Sep-Oct;102(5):364-8
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bicycling - statistics & numerical data
Canada
Humans
Motor Activity
Residence Characteristics - statistics & numerical data
Rural Population - statistics & numerical data
Schools - statistics & numerical data
Transportation - legislation & jurisprudence - methods - statistics & numerical data
Urban Population - statistics & numerical data
Walking - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Walking or cycling to school represents an opportunity for children to engage in physical activity. The study objectives were to: 1) describe active transportation policies, programs, and built environments of Canadian schools and their surrounding neighbourhoods, and 2) document variations based on urban-rural location and school type (primary vs. secondary vs. mixed primary/secondary schools).
397 schools from across Canada were studied. A school administrator completed a questionnaire and responses were used to assess schools' policies and programs related to active transportation and the safety and aesthetics of their respective neighbourhoods. Built environment features in a 1 km-radius circular buffer around each school were measured using geographic information systems.
Greater than 70% of schools had passive policies (e.g., skateboards permitted on school grounds) and facilities (e.g., bicycle racks in secure area to avoid theft) to encourage bicycle and small-wheeled vehicle use. Less than 40% of schools had active programs designed to encourage active transportation, such as organized 'walk to school' days. Garbage in the streets, crime and substance abuse were barriers in most school neighbourhoods. Approximately 42% of schools were located on high-speed roads not amenable to active transportation and 14% did not have a sidewalk leading to the school. Secondary schools had less favourable active transportation policies/programs and neighbourhood safety/aesthetics compared to primary schools. Rural schools had less favourable built environments than urban schools.
Canadian children, particularly those from rural areas, face a number of impediments to active transportation as a method of travelling to school.
PubMed ID
22032103 View in PubMed
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Adolescent smoking: effect of school and community characteristics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature139245
Source
Am J Prev Med. 2010 Dec;39(6):507-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2010
Author
Chris Y Lovato
Cornelia Zeisser
H Sharon Campbell
Allison W Watts
Peter Halpin
Mary Thompson
John Eyles
Edward Adlaf
K Stephen Brown
Author Affiliation
School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. chris.lovato@ubc.ca
Source
Am J Prev Med. 2010 Dec;39(6):507-14
Date
Dec-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Canada - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Data Collection
Female
Health Education - methods
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Organizational Policy
Residence Characteristics
Schools - statistics & numerical data
Smoking - epidemiology - prevention & control - psychology
Social Environment
Socioeconomic Factors
Students - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
A substantial challenge in addressing adolescent tobacco use is that smoking behaviors occur in complex environments that involve the school setting and larger community context.
This study provides an integrated description of factors from the school and community environment that affect youth smoking and explains variation in individual smoking behaviors both within and across schools/communities.
Data were collected from 82 randomly sampled secondary schools in five Canadian provinces (British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Newfoundland, and Labrador) during the 2003-2004 school year. Cross-sectional data were obtained from students; school administrators (school-based tobacco control policies and programs); and from observations in the community. In 2009, hierarchic logistic regression was used to model the role of individual, school, and community variables in predicting student smoking outcomes.
Students who attended a school with a focus on tobacco prevention (OR=0.87, 95% CI=0.81, 0.94) and stronger policies prohibiting tobacco use (OR=0.92, 95% CI=0.88, 0.97) were less likely to smoke than students who attended a school without these characteristics. A student was more likely to smoke if a greater number of students smoked on the school periphery (OR=1.25, 95% CI=1.07, 1.47). Within the community, price per cigarette (OR=0.91, 95% CI=0.84, 0.99) and immigrants (OR=0.99, 95% CI=0.98, 0.99) were inversely related to students' smoking status.
The results suggest that school and community characteristics account for variation in smoking levels across schools. Based on the current findings, the ideal school setting that supports low student smoking levels is located in a neighborhood where the cost of cigarettes is high, provides tobacco prevention education, and has a policy prohibiting smoking.
Notes
Comment In: Am J Prev Med. 2010 Dec;39(6):609-1021084083
PubMed ID
21084070 View in PubMed
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Adolescent suicide and suicide contagion in three secondary schools.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature68342
Source
Int J Emerg Ment Health. 2001;3(3):163-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
2001
Author
S. Poijula
K E Wahlberg
A. Dyregrov
Author Affiliation
Oy Synolon Ltd., Center for Trauma Psychology, Valtatie 16 as 11, 90500 Oulu, Finland. Soili.Poijula@netppl.fi
Source
Int J Emerg Ment Health. 2001;3(3):163-8
Date
2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Crisis Intervention - methods
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Models, Psychological
Poisson Distribution
Psychotherapy, Brief
Schools - statistics & numerical data
Suicide - prevention & control - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
This study investigated crisis intervention in three secondary schools after the suicides of five students, focusing on the relation between crisis intervention and suicide contagion. The contagion hypothesis was supported. Following a suicide, the number of suicides that occurred in secondary schools in one year were markedly increased beyond chance. No new suicides took place at schools where adequate first talk-throughs and psychological debriefing were conducted by a mental health professional. Proper crisis intervention is recommended to prevent suicide contagion in schools.
PubMed ID
11642194 View in PubMed
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Are characteristics of the school district associated with active transportation to school in Danish adolescents?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131633
Source
Eur J Public Health. 2012 Jun;22(3):398-404
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2012
Author
Christiane Stock
Kim Bloomfield
Bo Ejstrud
Mathilde Vinther-Larsen
Mathias Meijer
Morten Grønbæk
Ulrike Grittner
Author Affiliation
Unit for Health Promotion Research, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark. cstock@health.sdu.dk
Source
Eur J Public Health. 2012 Jun;22(3):398-404
Date
Jun-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Bicycling
Denmark
Environment
Exercise
Female
Humans
Male
Schools - statistics & numerical data
Sex Factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Transportation - methods
Walking
Abstract
This study sought to determine the influence of individual factors on active transportation to school among Danish seventh graders and whether school district factors are associated with such behaviour independently of individual factors.
Mixed effects logistic regression models determined the effects of individual (gender, family affluence, enjoyment of school and academic performance) and school district factors (educational level, household savings, land use and size) on active transportation to school (by foot, bicycle or other active means) among 10 380 pupils aged 13-15 years nested in 407 school districts.
Of all students, 64.4% used active transportation to school daily. Boys, those with perceived higher school performance and those with lower family affluence were more likely to use active transportation to school. After adjustment for all individual factors listed above, high household savings at the school district level was associated with higher odds of active transportation to school. As factors of land use, low level of farming land use and high proportion of single houses were associated with active transportation to school.
Policies aiming at reducing social inequalities at the school district level may enhance active transportation to school. School districts with farming land use face barriers for active transportation to school, requiring special policy attention.
PubMed ID
21893503 View in PubMed
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Are there detrimental effects of witnessing school violence in early adolescence?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature154085
Source
J Adolesc Health. 2008 Dec;43(6):600-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2008
Author
Michel Janosz
Isabelle Archambault
Linda S Pagani
Sophie Pascal
Alexandre J S Morin
François Bowen
Author Affiliation
School of Psychoeducation, University of Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada. michel.janosz@umontreal.ca
Source
J Adolesc Health. 2008 Dec;43(6):600-8
Date
Dec-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Child
Crime Victims - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Juvenile Delinquency - statistics & numerical data
Male
Prospective Studies
Quebec - epidemiology
Schools - statistics & numerical data
Sex Factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Violence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
We prospectively tested the extent to which witnessing school violence predicts psychosocial and school adjustment in students while accounting for their prior psychosocial characteristics and peer victimization. We also explored the role of feelings of insecurity in explaining this relationship.
Questionnaires were administered to 1104 students (52% boys) from five high schools from the Montreal area (Quebec, Canada) at the beginning, middle, and end of seventh grade. Self report measures included sociodemographic characteristics, victimization, witnessing violence, feelings of insecurity, internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, and measures of engagement, achievement, and truancy as indicators of school adjustment.
Witnessing school violence was a comparatively better predictor of subsequent externalizing problems and school adjustment than actual victimization. Conversely, relative to having experienced violence as a witness, actual victimization more reliably estimated later internalizing problems. Feelings of insecurity partially explained the development of school engagement and truancy.
Our findings underscore the implications of school violence as a public health and safety issue, the consideration of witnessing as important in estimating its impact, and a comprehensive approach when developing and implementing strategies that aim to prevent this form of community violence.
PubMed ID
19027649 View in PubMed
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Association of pupil vandalism, bullying and truancy with teachers' absence due to illness: a multilevel analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123851
Source
J Sch Psychol. 2012 Jun;50(3):347-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2012
Author
Jenni Ervasti
Mika Kivimäki
Riikka Puusniekka
Pauliina Luopa
Jaana Pentti
Sakari Suominen
Jussi Vahtera
Marianna Virtanen
Author Affiliation
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland. jenni.ervasti@ttl.fi
Source
J Sch Psychol. 2012 Jun;50(3):347-61
Date
Jun-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absenteeism
Adult
Bullying
Crime - statistics & numerical data
Faculty - statistics & numerical data
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Retrospective Studies
Schools - statistics & numerical data
Sick Leave - statistics & numerical data
Student Dropouts
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine whether vandalism, bullying, and truancy among pupils at school are associated with absence due to illness among teachers. Data on such problem behaviour of 17,033 pupils in 90 schools were linked to absence records of 2364 teachers. Pupil reported vandalism and bullying at the school-level were associated with teachers' short-term (1- to 3-day) absences. Cumulative exposure to various forms of pupils' problem behaviour was associated with even higher rates of short-term absences among teachers. No association was found between pupils' problem behaviour and teachers' long-term (>3-day) absences. In conclusion, there seems to be a link between pupils' problem behaviour and teachers' short-term absence due to illness. Further work should determine whether problem behaviour is a cause or a consequence of absences or whether the association is noncausal.
PubMed ID
22656077 View in PubMed
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Associations between school deprivation indices and oral health status.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature139167
Source
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2011 Jun;39(3):213-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2011
Author
Patricia Da Rosa
Belinda Nicolau
Jean-Marc Brodeur
Mike Benigeri
Christophe Bedos
Marie-Claude Rousseau
Author Affiliation
Epidemiology and Biostatistics Unit, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, University of Quebec, Laval, Canada.
Source
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2011 Jun;39(3):213-20
Date
Jun-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Child, Preschool
Dental Caries - epidemiology
Dental Health Surveys
Educational Status
Female
Health promotion
Humans
Linear Models
Logistic Models
Male
Odds Ratio
Oral Health
Poverty - statistics & numerical data
Quebec - epidemiology
Schools - statistics & numerical data
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Despite an overall improvement in oral health status in several countries over the past decades, chronic oral diseases (COD) remain a public health problem, occurring mostly among children in the lower social strata. The use of publicly available indicators at the school level may be an optimal strategy to identify children at high risk of COD in order to organize oral health promotion and intervention in schools.
To investigate whether school deprivation indices were associated with schoolchildren oral health status.
This ecological study used a sample of 316 elementary public schools in the province of Quebec, Canada. Data from two sources were linked using school identifiers: (i) Two school deprivation indices (in deciles) from the Ministry of Education, a poverty index based on the low income cut-offs established by Statistics Canada and a socioeconomic environment index defined by the proportions of maternal under-schooling and of unemployed parents and (ii) Oral health outcomes from the Quebec Schoolchildren Oral Health Survey 1998-99 aggregated at the school level. These included proportions of children with dental caries and reporting oral pain. The relation between school deprivation indices and oral health outcomes was assessed with linear regression for dental caries experience and logistic regression for oral pain.
The mean DMF-S (mean number of decayed, missing and filled permanent teeth surfaces) by school was 0.7 (SD = 0.5); the average proportions of children with dental caries and reporting oral pain were 25.0% and 3.0%, respectively. The poverty index was not associated with oral health outcomes. For the socioeconomic environment index, dental caries experience was 6.9% higher when comparing schools in unfavourable socioeconomic environments to the most favourable ones [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1, 11.7%]. Furthermore, the most deprived schools, as compared to least deprived ones, were almost three times as likely to have children reporting oral pain in the previous week.
The school socioeconomic environment index was associated with oral health outcomes, and should be studied for its potential usefulness in planning school-based oral health promotion and screening strategies.
PubMed ID
21091525 View in PubMed
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Associations of risk of depression with sexual risk taking among adolescents in Nova Scotia high schools.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature140820
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 2010 Sep;55(9):577-85
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2010
Author
Kevin Wilson
Mark Asbridge
Steve Kisely
Don Langille
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia.
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 2010 Sep;55(9):577-85
Date
Sep-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Depressive Disorder - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Humans
Male
Nova Scotia - epidemiology
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Risk factors
Risk-Taking
Schools - statistics & numerical data
Sex Factors
Sexual Behavior - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Unsafe Sex - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Several interrelated factors, including depression, influence adolescents' chances of risky sexual behaviour. We examined the relation between depression and sexual risk-taking behaviours in adolescents after accounting for the effects of other variables.
We surveyed male (n = 1120) and female (n = 1177) adolescents at 4 high schools in central Nova Scotia, measuring factors known to be associated with sexual risk taking. Risk of depression was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Outcomes were self-reported sexual behaviours. We used logistic regression to assess associations of multiple factors with sexual risk taking.
In univariate analyses, risk of depression was associated with 3 risk-taking behaviours for females (being sexually active, having unplanned sex when using substances, and not using effective contraception at last intercourse) and 2 for males (having unplanned sex when using substances and having more than 1 partner in the previous year). In full multivariate models, risk of depression in females remained significantly associated with unplanned sex and nonuse of effective contraception at last intercourse, but was no longer associated with being sexually active. For males, both associations remained significant.
Risk of depression is consistently and independently associated with adolescent sexual risk behaviours after adjusting for other variables. Health care providers working with teenagers should screen for risky sexual behaviours and sexually transmitted infections if depression is apparent in their patients.
PubMed ID
20840805 View in PubMed
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Availability of limited service food outlets surrounding schools in British Columbia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114382
Source
Can J Public Health. 2012 Jul-Aug;103(4):e255-9
Publication Type
Article
Author
Jennifer L Black
Meghan Day
Author Affiliation
Food, Nutrition and Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC. j.black@ubc.ca.
Source
Can J Public Health. 2012 Jul-Aug;103(4):e255-9
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
British Columbia
Commerce - statistics & numerical data
Fast Foods - supply & distribution
Food Services - statistics & numerical data
Food Supply
Humans
Residence Characteristics - statistics & numerical data
Schools - statistics & numerical data
Social Environment
Walking
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to provide a descriptive profile of the availability of limited service food outlets surrounding public schools in British Columbia, Canada.
Data from the 2010 Canadian Business Data Files were used to identify limited service food outlets including fast food outlets, beverage and snack food stores, delis and convenience stores. The number of food outlets within 800 metres of 1,392 public schools and the distance from schools to the nearest food outlets were assessed. Multivariate regression models examined the associations between food outlet availability and school-level characteristics.
In 2010, over half of the public schools in BC (54%) were located within a 10-12 minute walk from at least one limited service food outlet. The median closest distance to a food outlet was just over 1 km (1016 m). Schools comprised of students living in densely populated urban neighbourhoods and neighbourhoods characterized by lower socio-economic status were more likely to have access to limited service food outlets within walking distance. After adjusting for school-level median family income and population density, larger schools had higher odds of exposure to food vendors compared to schools with fewer students.
The availability of and proximity to limited service food outlets vary widely across schools in British Columbia and school-level characteristics are significantly associated with food outlet availability. Additional research is needed to understand how food environment exposures inside and surrounding schools impact students' attitudes, food choices and dietary quality.
PubMed ID
23618636 View in PubMed
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Birth month, school graduation, and the timing of births and marriages.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature63319
Source
Demography. 2004 Aug;41(3):547-68
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2004
Author
Vegard Skirbekk
Hans-Peter Kohler
Alexia Prskawetz
Author Affiliation
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. skirbekk@iiasa.ac.at
Source
Demography. 2004 Aug;41(3):547-68
Date
Aug-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Cohort Studies
Educational Status
Female
Humans
Marriage - statistics & numerical data
Maternal Age
Middle Aged
Parturition
Reproductive Behavior - statistics & numerical data
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Schools - statistics & numerical data
Seasons
Sweden
Time Factors
Abstract
We investigated the timing of fertility and marriage in Sweden using exogenous variation in the age at school graduation that results from differences in birth month. Our analysis found that the difference of 11 months in the age at leaving school between women who were born in two consecutive months, December and January, implies a delay in the age at first birth of 4.9 months. This effect of delayed graduation also persists for the timing of second births and first marriages, but it does not affect completed fertility or the overall probability of marriage before age 45. These results suggest the existence of a relatively rigid sequencing of demographic events in early adulthood, and the age at graduation from school emerges as an important factor in determining the timing--but not the quantum--of familyformation. In addition, these effects point to a potentially important influence of social age, defined by an individual's school cohort, instead of biological age. The relevance of social age is likely due to social interactions and peer-group influences exerted by individuals who are in the same school cohort but are not necessarily of the same age.
PubMed ID
15461014 View in PubMed
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116 records – page 1 of 12.