A type of medical examination of a school timetable is proposed, by bearing in mind the actual educational price established at a specific educational establishment. The ratio of the physiological and emotional stress in pupils during schooling to their learning progress and physical fitness is the price of schooling. The study has revealed no direct relationship between the level of schooling load and the price of education. There are difficulties in learning within the first days of a week and a need for additional efforts to maintain the pupils' working capacity at the end of a week.
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitously present in the environment and are suspected of carcinogenic, neurotoxic and immunotoxic effects. Significantly higher plasma concentrations of the congener PCB 28 occur in children compared to adults. Exposure in schools may contribute to this difference.
To determine whether increased blood plasma concentrations of PCB 28 in Danish school children and mothers are associated with living in homes or attending schools constructed in the PCB period (1959-1977).
PCB 28 was analyzed in plasma samples from 116 children aged 6-11years and 143 mothers living in an urban and a rural area in Denmark and participating in the European pilot project DEMOCOPHES (Demonstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale). In Denmark, PCBs were used in construction in the period 1950-1977, and year of construction or renovation of the homes and schools was used as a proxy for indoor PCB exposure. Linear regression models were used to assess the association between potential PCB exposure from building materials and lipid adjusted concentrations of PCB 28 in plasma, with and without adjustment for potential confounders.
Among the 116 children and 143 mothers, we were able to specify home construction period in all but 4 children and 5 mothers leaving 111 children and 138 mothers for our analyses. The median lipid adjusted plasma PCB 28 concentration was 3 (range: 1-28) ng/g lipid in the children and 2 (range: 1-8) ng/g lipid in the mothers. Children living in homes built in the PCB period had significantly higher lipid adjusted plasma PCB 28 concentrations compared to children living in homes built before or after the PCB period. Following adjustment for covariates, PCB 28 concentrations in children were 40 (95% CI: 13; 68) percent higher than concentrations of children living in homes constructed at other times. Furthermore, children attending schools built or substantially refurbished in the PCB period also had significantly higher (46%, 95% CI: 22; 70) PCB 28 concentrations compared to children attending schools constructed before or after the PCB period, while their mothers had similar concentrations. Adjustment for the most prevalent congener, PCB 153, did not change this effect of home or school construction. When both home and school construction year were included in the models, the increase in lipid adjusted plasma PCB 28 for children living in or attending schools from the PCB period was no longer statistically significant. The individual effect of home and school construction periods could not be evaluated further with the available data.
Our results suggest that PCB exposure in the indoor environment in schools and homes constructed during the PCB period may contribute significantly to children's plasma PCB 28 concentration. Efforts to minimize PCB exposure in indoor environments should be considered.
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain why children and parents frequently describe problems with school toilets. SETTING: Two contrasting cities in Northern England (Newcastle upon Tyne 394 pupils) and Southern Sweden (Goteborg/Mölndal 157 pupils) METHODS: Self-administered questionnaires were given to children aged 9-11 years in England and Sweden. Researchers administered questionnaires to Head teachers and recorded their observations of facilities according to predetermined basic standards. RESULTS: Children from both countries said they found school toilets unpleasant, dirty, smelly, and frightening and that bullying occurred there. Many children avoided using the school toilets (62% of boys and 35% of girls (in the UK site) and 28% boys and girls in Swedish site avoided using the school toilets to defaecate). Results were similar in both centres. CONCLUSION: European standards are needed for school toilets in order to prevent children developing problems such as constipation, urinary tract infections and incontinence.
Gymnasiums and general educational schools have most widely spread in Kazan now. By the end of schooling, the difference in the prevalence of all diseases in the gymnasium and school is 244.22 and 908.11, respectively, i.e. this figure is 3.7 times higher in the general educational school than that in the gymnasium. In the school-leaving forms of a general educational school, the prevalence of different abnormalities is twice higher than in those of gymnasium. Thus, there has been a 2.2-fold decrease in the proportion of apparently healthy children in the past 5 years. In the school-leaving pupils of a general educational school, the prevalence of abnormalities is twice higher than that in gymnasium pupils of the same age and a 13-fold rise in the prevalence of mental disease exacts a very careful attention.
Increasing rates of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and younger age at diagnosis pose a challenge to preschool intervention systems. In Sweden, most young autistic children receive intervention service in community-based preschool programs, but no tool is yet available to assess the quality of the preschool learning environment. This study adapted the Autism Program Environment Rating Scale Preschool/Elementary to Swedish community context (APERS-P-SE). Following translation and a multistep modification process, independent experts rated the content validity of the adaptation. Findings indicate high cross-cultural validity of the adapted APERS-P-SE. The cultural adaption process of the APERS-P-SE highlights similarities and differences between the American and Swedish preschool systems and their impact on early ASD intervention.
The aim of the study was to analyse effects of various innovative forms of school education on the health status and functional abilities of children and adolescents. Enhanced academic loads are shown to be the most unfavourable factor of the school environment. The main consequences of excess teaching load are shortened motor and outdoor activities of the children, smaller duration of night sleep. Optimization of academic routine (alternation of studies and holidays), modular structure of school calendar might help to reduce fatigue during school hours. Hygienic estimates of different variants of specialized education are obtained. Scientifically sound hygienic requirements are proposed to be applied to the organization of academic activities in a new type of educational institutions, full-day schools.
As the Norwegian society, and thereby the kindergartens, have become more multicultural, the need for cultivating teachers capable of operating in an ever diversified and global world is highlighted as an important educational strategy within teacher education. The purpose of the specific intercultural program in kindergarten teacher education discussed in this article refers to competences needed as a professional teacher in a multicultural kindergarten. Teachers often have various assumptions and beliefs taken for granted. Therefore, reflexivity appears in intercultural education as a crucial asset. However, the article argues that the notion of self-contemplation and self-reflection that can give the subject freedom as a thinking being needs to be challenged. Questioning beliefs and assumptions includes an examination of one's emotional experiences, values and perspectives. This examination can threaten one's core beliefs and create powerful feelings such as anger, shame or resentment. Introducing the concept of disorienting dilemmas, the article problematizes the rationalist intellectual orientation in teacher education and discusses the need to focus on intercultural experiences as sensuous, intellectual and affective. The article illustrates some disorienting dilemmas with narratives from students who have attended the program. Finally, the article considers the conditions and pedagogical means that might support a more holistic approach to learning in intercultural experiences.