The aim of the Finnish Schools on the Move program is to create a more active and pleasant school day through physical activity (PA). In this quasi-experimental design, we compared changes in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time (ST) during the school day and outside school hours for Grades 1-9 over two academic years in four program schools and two reference schools. Altogether 319 girls and boys aged 7-15 participated in the study between 2010 and 2012. MVPA and ST were measured four times over the 1.5-year follow-up period for seven consecutive days, using a hip-worn ActiGraph accelerometer. Linear growth curve modeling was used to examine the effect of the program on MVPA and ST during follow-up. School day MVPA increased (P = 0.010) and school day ST decreased (P = 0.008) in program primary schools (Grades 1-6) more compared with the reference schools. The effect sizes (Cohen's d) for the difference in change (from the first to the last measurement) were small (d = 0.18 and d = -0.27, respectively). No differences in the changes of leisure-time or whole-day MVPA and ST between the program and reference schools were observed during follow-up. In conclusion, the changes in school day MVPA and ST did not translate into positive effects across the whole day. More effective and longer promotion actions are needed for positive changes in PA and ST, especially in lower secondary schools and for all daily segments.
The aim was to investigate associations between e-cigarette use and social and psychosocial factors and cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and narcotics use among adolescents attending 9th grade in primary school and 2nd grade in secondary school.
The public health survey among adolescents in Scania in 2016 includes pupils in grades 9 and 2. The associations between e-cigarette use and lifestyle, social and psychosocial factors, and trust were investigated with logistic regressions.
In 9th grade, 32% of male pupils and 27% of female pupils had ever used e-cigarettes, and in 2nd grade, 43% of males and 31% of females had ever used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use was significantly associated with current smoking, snus (a moist powder tobacco product originating in Sweden) use, water pipe use, intensive alcohol consumption, and narcotics and also with psychosocial conditions related to home and parents, peers, and school.
The prevalence of ever e-cigarette use was high among adolescents attending both grades. E-cigarette use was most strongly associated with health-related lifestyles. It was also associated with psychosocial factors such as study difficulties, school stress, problems talking with parents, and generalized trust.
Using the social-ecological and social cognitive theories as integrated guiding frameworks, the present study examined whether moral disengagement and defender self-efficacy at the individual level, and moral disengagement, quality of teacher-student relationships and quality of student-student relationships at the classroom level were associated with passive bystanding and defending in bullying situations. Participants were 900 Swedish students from 43 classrooms, ranging in age from 9 to 13years. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that passive reactions by bystanders were associated with greater moral disengagement and less defender self-efficacy. Defending, in turn, was associated with less moral disengagement and greater defender self-efficacy and classroom student-student relationship quality. Furthermore, students who scored high in moral disengagement were even less prone to defend victims when the classroom student-student relationship quality was low, but more prone to act as defenders when the classroom student-student relationship quality was high. In addition, the negative association between defender self-efficacy and passive bystanding was stronger both in classrooms with higher student-student relationship quality and in those with lower class moral disengagement. Implications for prevention are discussed.
Despite significant progress in the epidemiology of chronic pain in adults, major gaps remain in our understanding of the epidemiology of chronic pain in children. In particular, the incidence, prevalence and sensory characteristics of many types of pain in Canadian children are unknown.
A study to obtain the lifetime and point prevalence of common acute pains, recurrent pain syndromes and chronic pains was conducted in a cohort of 495 school children, nine to 13 years of age, in eastern Ontario.
Children reported their pain experiences and described the intensity, affect and duration of the pains experienced over the previous month by completing the Pain Experience Interview -- Short Form.
The majority of children (96%) experienced some acute pain over the previous month, with headache (78%) being most frequently reported. Lifetime prevalence for certain acute pains differed significantly by sex (P
Cites: Scand J Rheumatol. 1998;27(4):273-69751467
Cites: Pain. 1996 Mar;64(3):435-438783307
Cites: J Behav Med. 1988 Oct;11(5):497-5073236381
Cites: Health Educ Res. 2004 Jun;19(3):284-915140848
The study's objective was to better understand alcohol abuse and impaired driving behaviors in a First Nations community as it reflects systemic issues linked to historical, family and community experiences.
Fifteen 18- to 29-year-old drivers participated in an exploratory eight-hour Talking Circle held according to traditional cultural practice. Four First Nations researchers, trained in Talking Circle protocol, and a Band Elder facilitated the data collection, data analysis according to emerging themes, and data verification.
Federal government residential schools contribute to intergenerational effects which impact impaired driving in a northern First Nations community. Traditional parental role modeling has changed dramatically. Rather than guide children through a communally shared development process, many parents now expect their children to assume adult roles by expecting them to take care of their guardians when they drink excessive amounts of alcohol. Because a wall of silence exists between the young and old, many young people seek refuge with friends and peers, who subsequently influence them to abuse alcohol and engage in impaired driving. Many older Band members no longer serve as leaders for young people. Instead, they behave like peers and engage in activities that facilitate alcohol abuse and impaired driving.
Historical institutions like federal government residential schools have contributed to systemic socio cultural problems which influence alcohol abuse and impaired driving. Hence there is a need for community-based intervention strategies that promote cultural healing. The healing journey can start with First Nations communities providing their people opportunities to share their stresses and traumas in supporting and nurturing environments.
Adolescents' health is today threatened by the use of alcohol and other psychoactive substances. It is therefore important to develop interventions related to substance use in school health care. The aim of this study was to examine the empowering or risk background factors related to substance use among adolescents, and the ability of school nurses (PHN) to identify these factors and to provide needed individual early intervention. The data were collected by semistructured questionnaires completed by 14- to 18-year-old adolescents (n = 326, response rate 79) and PHNs (n = 10) in 2004. The adolescent questionnaire consisted of items related to the respondents' background and Adolescents' Substance Use Measurement (ADSUME). Following individual consent, adolescents' ADSUME responses were sent to the PHNs for intervention. The PHNs assessed the adolescents' empowering background factors and intervention using the questionnaire, and 70% (n = 228) of their answers matched the adolescents' answers. The data were analysed with the SPSS software using the chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test, kappa coefficient and agreement percentages. Substance use among adolescents was associated with parental support, mother's education and smoking, the adolescents' knowledge about substances, peer support and hobbies. The PHNs' assessments regarding supportive background were not in agreement with the assessments of adolescents who were using hazardous substances. One-fifth of the adolescents received the brief intervention, although many of them might have needed extra support and follow-up on the basis of their ADSUME results. The research findings can be generalized only for alcohol use, because only 3% of the study informants used substances other than alcohol. Further research is warranted concerning PHNs' ability to identify hazardous substance use and to ensure preventive early intervention and requisite support among substance-using adolescents in order to improve evidence-based health promotion.
The reform of hospital nursing in the last quarter of the nineteenth century brought nursing leaders into conflict with the gendered and class bound structure of Victorian society. The experiences of Maria Machin are used in this article as an example of the barriers nursing leaders had to overcome in order to establish a competent nursing service. While Machin was eminently successful in improving patient care and expanding the knowledge base of her nurses, she could not change the perceptions of nursing which the public at large held. At the beginning of the nineteenth century hospital nurses had been essentially cleaning women who gave some of the less important nursing care. They formed a cheap service which many hospital governors considered a relatively low priority in the overall operation of the hospital. This view of nursing persisted long after the reformers had made nursing into something quite different. Machin's nursing career also illustrates how nursing participated in a major aspect of British imperialism, the export of professional expertise and administrative skills as well as the way nursing fitted into the rise of the new professionalism.
The Teaching Scholars Program for Educators in the Health Sciences at McGill University, in Montreal, Quebec, was designed to promote the professional development of health science educators by increasing their expertise in developing and implementing educational programs and taking on leadership roles in education. This program, which was initiated in 1997 and is tailored to the individual needs of the participants, consists of participation in: two university courses; a monthly seminar; a research study or an educational project, consisting of curriculum design and evaluation; and faculty-wide faculty development activities. As of 2006, 34 scholars have completed this program. Outcome data indicate that the majority of teaching scholars have taken on new roles and responsibilities in medical education; maintained the changes implemented in their teaching practices; continued to participate in faculty development activities; and presented their work at educational meetings. A number of scholars have also applied successfully for educationally related grants and have published their educational projects. Five of the scholars have pursued advanced studies. This program, which aims to move beyond the improvement of teaching skills by providing a foundation for educational leadership and scholarship, resembles many others in its emphasis on independent study, peer support, and the maintenance of ongoing responsibilities. It is innovative in that scholars participate in university courses and are encouraged to attend an "outside" conference or course. The overall benefits of this program, as noted by the scholars, include increased knowledge and skills, introduction to a "community of practice," and new career paths and opportunities.