Active Smarter Kids (ASK): Rationale and design of a cluster-randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of daily physical activity on children's academic performance and risk factors for non-communicable diseases.
Evidence is emerging from school-based studies that physical activity might favorably affect children's academic performance. However, there is a need for high-quality studies to support this. Therefore, the main objective of the Active Smarter Kids (ASK) study is to investigate the effect of daily physical activity on children's academic performance. Because of the complexity of the relation between physical activity and academic performance it is important to identify mediating and moderating variables such as cognitive function, fitness, adiposity, motor skills and quality of life (QoL). Further, there are global concerns regarding the high prevalence of lifestyle-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The best means to address this challenge could be through primary prevention. Physical activity is known to play a key role in preventing a host of NCDs. Therefore, we investigated as a secondary objective the effect of the intervention on risk factors related to NCDs. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design of the ASK study, the ASK intervention as well as the scope and details of the methods we adopted to evaluate the effect of the ASK intervention on 5 (th) grade children.
The ASK study is a cluster randomized controlled trial that includes 1145 fifth graders (aged 10 years) from 57 schools (28 intervention schools; 29 control schools) in Sogn and Fjordane County, Norway. This represents 95.3 % of total possible recruitment. Children in all 57 participating schools took part in a curriculum-prescribed physical activity intervention (90 min/week of physical education (PE) and 45 min/week physical activity, in total; 135 min/week). In addition, children from intervention schools also participated in the ASK intervention model (165 min/week), i.e. a total of 300 min/week of physical activity/PE. The ASK study was implemented over 7 months, from November 2014 to June 2015. We assessed academic performance in reading, numeracy and English using Norwegian National tests delivered by The Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training. We assessed physical activity objectively at baseline, midpoint and at the end of the intervention. All other variables were measured at baseline and post-intervention. In addition, we used qualitative methodologies to obtain an in-depth understanding of children's embodied experiences and pedagogical processes taking place during the intervention.
If successful, ASK could provide strong evidence of a relation between physical activity and academic performance that could potentially inform the process of learning in elementary schools. Schools might also be identified as effective settings for large scale public health initiatives for the prevention of NCDs.
Clinicaltrials.gov ID nr: NCT02132494 . Date of registration, 6(th) of May, 2014.
The objective of the present work was to study peculiar features of the nosological structure of chronic ENT pathology in the applicants and students of a higher education institution and perform a thorough analysis of the prevalence of various forms of chronic pharyngeal diseases. The study was based at the Polyclinic of Moscow State Institute of International Relations, Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and lasted from 1998 to 2011. A total of 42 829 subjects aged between 15-30 years were examined including 32 186 applicants undergoing physical qualification by the medical evaluation board and 10 643 students subjected to routine annual medical examination. The latter group was characterized by the high prevalence of chronic ENT diseases predominated by pharyngeal pathology (39.6-59.8%). Chronic pharyngeal pathology was prevailed by chronic tonsillitis (32.7-50.6%) followed in the descending order by chronic pharyngitis (16.9-25.2%), papillomas affecting the soft palate, palatine arches and tonsils (0.8-1.5%), and adenoid vegetations (0.05-0.4%). It is concluded that regular medical check-up and treatment provide an effective tool for the prevention of CT progression and the development of its complications in the young subjects. 93.81% of the students were removed from dispensary observation due to improvement of health conditions or recovery. It is concluded that the surgical treatment of CT (bilateral tonsillectomy) should be more extensively applied in the absence of the desired effect of its conservative therapy.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate mothers' and fathers' perception of their child's health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among 10- to 12-year-old Icelandic children with or without chronic health condition or illness. A total of 912 Icelandic parents (510 mothers and 402 fathers) and 480 children (209 boys and 271 girls) participated in the study. The Icelandic fathers of children who visited the school nurse over a period of 1 week perceived HRQOL of their children to be significantly lower than the mothers. A gender difference was found between the parents; mothers perceived their children to have significantly higher school functioning than fathers. Both mothers and fathers of children with chronic health condition/illness perceived their children to have significantly lower HRQOL than did the parents of children without a chronic health condition. The findings underline the importance for school nurses to develop and test interventions for school-age children with chronic health conditions or illnesses.
Parents of children with type 1 diabetes often raise complaints about self-care support during school time. The aim of this study was to investigate attitudes to diabetes care in school reported by children with type 1 diabetes, their parents, and their diabetes teams.
Children who had completed preschool class or at least one grade in the 9-yr compulsory school system were invited to participate. Data were collected using separate questionnaires for the children and their parents. In addition, the members of the diabetes team answered a separate questionnaire. All pediatric diabetes centers in Sweden were invited to participate in the study.
All Swedish children and adolescents with diabetes are treated at pediatric diabetes centers. Out of 44 eligible centers, 41 were able to participate. The questionnaires were completed by 317 children and adolescents and 323 parents. The mean age was 11.4?±?2.7?yr and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was 61.8?±?12.4?mmol/mol (7.8?±?1.1%). For 57% of the children, there was no member of staff at the school with principal responsibility to support diabetes self-care. A written action plan for hypoglycemia existed for 60% of the children. Twenty-one percent of the parents regularly gave less insulin than they calculated would be needed at breakfast because of fear of hypoglycemia during school time.
Although Sweden has legislation underlining the specific need for diabetes care in school, this nationwide study demonstrates deficiencies in the support of self-care management.
There was executed the ecologic-hygienic assessment of the distribution of respiratory diseases prevalence in bioclimatic zones of the Primorsky Krai. The aim of the study was a systematic assessment of the impact of ecological-hygienic factors of environment on the distribution of respiratory diseases in adolescents and children of the Primorsky region. As an information database there were used indices of the prevalence of diseases of the respiratory system of the ICD-10 class of the official statistical report forms for the period of2000-2013 and the parameters of the environment offactor modules (6 - socio-sanitary, 5 - environmental). The numerical values of modules offactors were determined according to a specially developed scoring scale. The study of the prevalence was carried out with the use of a classical method of data analysis - descriptive statistics, Chi-square criteria. By means of the method of regression analysis from the SPSS package software there was established the relationship of environmental factors and the level of the prevalence of diseases, and were calculated values of the factor loadings influencing on the morbidity rate of children and adolescents. The study revealed that in the structure of morbidity diseases of the respiratory system account of 39% in adolescents, 61% - in children. Constructed predictive models describe the trend of the increasing in the prevalence in adolescents and children. Over the past 15 years, the level of respiratory diseases morbidity rate increased by 46.1%. It is established that the prevalence of respiratory diseases in children and adolescents from various districts of the Primorsky territory depends on the features of the bioclimatic zones and the degree of sanitary-hygienic situation, as well as combinations of parameters that form these zones; the highest cumulative level of the prevalence is observed in the bioclimatic zone of the coast, that is caused by the various degree of the impact of biotropic factors of environment; The prevalence of diseases of respiratory system is mainly affected by bioclimatic factors: residence in an area of high humidity, temperature swings, movements of air masses in combination with air pollution.
AIM: To assess the prevalence of injuries in elementary schools and determine specific risk groups of school-age children. METHODS: According to the 1991 census, there were 6,398 children between 7 and 14 years of age in the study area of the former Koprivnica district. During the 1992-1997 period, 354 children were injured in school. The registration of injured children was performed via structured questionnaires filled out at the emergency clinic and outpatient surgical clinic of the General Hospital in Koprivnica. The mechanism of accident and activities preceding it were categorized according to the Nordic Medico-Statistical Committee classification. Chi-square test was used to determine groups of school children at specific risk and a classification tree was made on the basis of minimum entropy values for age, sex, activity, and mechanism of injury. RESULTS: The highest injury rate of was recorded in 12-year-olds (21.7%). Upper extremities were most common site of injury (52.8%), whereas the most common type of injury was contusion (45.2%). The rate of head injuries was 3.2 times higher in younger (aged 7-10) children, whereas the rate of sports injuries was 3.5-fold higher in older (aged 11-14) children (p=0.001). Entropy classification revealed younger school-age children to be at the highest risk of contusion due to a blow from a ball, an object, or contact during sports activities. CONCLUSION: In Koprivnica County, most school-related injuries occurred during sport activities (42%) and play during recess (55%), with specific differences in age and sex.
Advocates for the implementation of the Balanced School Day (BSD) schedule argue that this schedule will increase opportunities for physical activity. However, the relationship between this scheduling change and its impact on physical activity has not been examined. Thus, this study assessed levels of physical activity in students attending 2 different schools: 1 using the BSD and the other using the Traditional School Day (TSD) schedule.
Participation of students between grades 3 and 6 was sought. Data were collected over 4 school days using pedometers. Independent Sample t tests and 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed.
A total of 117 students participated. Overall, average daily step counts for boys (6972 ± 1952) were significantly higher than girls (5742 ± 1495; p
The aim of this study is to analyze the gender differences in injuries at Finnish comprehensive schools. Nine schools reported a total of 1135 injuries to the injury register over two school years. Boys (56%) were injured more often than girls, their injuries happened more often during breaks at school yard, whereas girls hurt themselves during sport lectures in the gymnastic halls. The proportion of boys' injuries also increased with age. More often, boys' injuries were caused by intentional actions by other pupils. Girls injured their lower extremities more often, whereas boys injured their faces and head. Boys also suffered concussion more often than girls, and were also referred for further care to health care centres or hospitals more often than girls. The higher injury frequency among boys at school corresponds to the higher injury rate of males in general, which is true for work, traffic, and leisure-time injuries. Increased adult supervisor control especially during breaks can prevent most of school injuries.
Schools are important arenas for interventions among children as health promoting initiatives in childhood is expected to have substantial influence on health and well-being in adulthood. In countries with compulsory school attention, all children could potentially benefit from health promotion at the school level regardless of socioeconomic status or other background factors. The first aim was to elucidate time trends in the number and types of school health promoting activities by describing the number and type of health promoting activities in primary and secondary schools in Denmark. The second aim was to investigate which characteristics of schools and students that are associated with participation in many (=3) versus few (0-2) health promoting activities during the preceding 2-3 years.
We used cross-sectional data from the 2006- and 2010-survey of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. The headmasters answered questions about the school's participation in health promoting activities and about school size, proportion of ethnic minorities, school facilities available for health promoting activities, competing problems and resources at the school and in the neighborhood. Students provided information about their health-related behavior and exposure to bullying which was aggregated to the school level. A total of 74 schools were available for analyses in 2006 and 69 in 2010. We used chi-square test, t-test, and binary logistic regression to analyze time trends and differences between schools engaging in many versus few health promoting activities.
The percentage of schools participating in =3 health promoting activities was 63% in 2006 and 61% in 2010. Also the mean number of health promoting activities was similar (3.14 vs. 3.07). The activities most frequently targeted physical activity (73% and 85%) and bullying (78% and 67%). Schools' participation in anti-smoking activities was significantly higher in 2006 compared with 2010 (46% vs. 29%). None of the investigated variables were associated with schools' participation in health promoting activities.
In a Danish context, schools' participation in health promotion was rather stable from 2006 to 2010 and unrelated to the measured characteristics of the schools and their students.
Cites: Int J Public Health. 2009 Sep;54 Suppl 2:131-919639260