Help-seeking and service utilization depends on the patients' interpretation of their illness and treatment needs. Worry, denial of illness, need for treatment and need for hospitalization in first-time admitted patients was studied.
New patients in two mental hospitals were consecutively recruited. Three hundred and thirty-four satisfied the inclusion criteria and 251 gave informed consent. One hundred and ninety-six had complete datasets (56% of those eligible).
Demography was recorded with the Minimal Basic Dataset by Ruud et al. (1993). Experiences of hospitalisation were measured with the Patient's Experience of Hospitalisation Questionnaire by Carskey et al. (1992). MINI was used for diagnosing and SCL-90-R by Derogatis (1997) for subjective symptoms. Standard multiple regressions were performed with the PEH subscales (Denial, Worry, Need for treatment and Need for hospitalisation) as dependents and demography, diagnosis and SCL-90-R subscales as explanatory variables.
(a) Psychoticism and the diagnosis of schizophrenia were associated with little worrying, denial of illness, of treatment needs and of need for hospitalisation. (b) Anxiety and affective disorders were related to worries, acknowledgement of illness, need for treatment and for hospitalisation.
In contrast to patients with mainly anxiety and affective disorders, psychotic patient tended to deny illness-related worries, that they had an illness and that they needed treatment and hospitalisation. An affective disorder together with suicidal thoughts (not attempts) was a strong drive towards hospital admission.
We examine the use of the mental hospital and alternative residential facilities by 149 chronic psychiatric patients in Ontario. All major movements of patients since the time of first admission were recorded, including the number of episodes and duration of hospitalization and placement in alternative facilities and in the community. Clinical and social variables thought likely to influence use were correlated with duration, placement, and mobility. In spite of the lack of formal criteria for placement, relatively discrete and homogeneous populations were found in each facility and clear patterns of use could be distinguished. For many patients, their present placement represents their most typical setting and implies a particular route through the psychiatric services. We describe factors relating to different types of movements, and emphasize the continuing importance of the mental hospital in long-term psychiatric care.
Five thousand, seven hundred and twenty-nine consecutive admissions to the three general hospitals and the mental hospital in St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada, were examined retrospectively for the use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The proportion of patients admitted who received ECT (rate), and the number of treatments per admission were recorded. Rate of ECT, expressed as percentage of patients admitted, was assessed for all hospitals separately and compared on legal status and diagnosis. One thousand, two hundred and thirty-six (21.5%) patients admitted, received ECT with little variation over a three year period. The rate was higher for the general hospitals and for voluntary patients. ECT was used in a very high proportion of patients with diagnoses of depression (50%), mania (20%), schizophrenia (36%), and neurotic disorders (20%). These findings are discussed in the context of the overall trend of a low utilization of ECT elsewhere, and the previous research evidence of limited indications for ECT.
To provide an overview of a comprehensive and integrated case-management program that incorporates principles of assertive community treatment and combines effective medical and psychosocial interventions and to present the results of a process and outcome evaluation of the program, with particular emphasis on its impact on service utilization and consumer satisfaction.
Data on demographic, clinical, and several outcome measures were collected on all patients who received care in the program for a minimum of 6 months. For process evaluation we assessed the extent to which the program adhered to its goals and satisfied the patients, their families, and community-service agencies. Outcome-evaluation data on the number and length of hospital admissions were compared for each subject with individual historical data for a period equal to the time spent in the program. In addition, relapses of psychotic symptoms that did not result in hospital admissions were calculated for each patient while in the program.
Demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics of clients show that the program has succeeded in maintaining its focus on providing services to relatively chronically ill patients with psychotic disorders over a mean period of 3 years. The process-evaluation data indicated a high level of satisfaction by patients, families, and other service agencies with the services received. Information on outcome variable showed that the program achieved significantly lower rates of hospital admissions and relapse of psychosis than expected. There was a highly significant reduction achieved in the utilization of inpatient hospital resources for patients receiving care in the program. Most of the inpatient service utilization was attributed to patients either who were resistant to treatment with antipsychotic agents or who refused to accept or comply with medication.
It is possible to provide effective continuity of care from inpatient treatment to community adjustment for most individuals with psychotic disorders across the spectrum by blending hospital and community resources within an integrated case-management model of care.
Working alliance between patients with a first-episode psychosis and their case manager is regarded as a key element in specialized early intervention services. The impact of this patient-case manager dyad on functional and clinical outcome is unknown. We aimed to investigate if a strong working alliance was associated with fewer clinical symptoms and better social functioning.
In a cross-sectional design, patients with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders (ICD-10, F20-29) were included after 18 months of treatment (N = 400). Baseline data were collected between June 2009 and December 2011. Symptoms were assessed using Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS), Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS), Working Alliance Inventory (WAI), and General Self-Efficacy (GSE). Linear regression analyses were adjusted for age, sex, cognition, and self-efficacy.
Results revealed significant associations between working alliance and fewer negative (? = -0.12; 95% CI, -0.19 to -0.04) and disorganized symptoms (? = -0.06; 95% CI, -0.11 to -0.01), and between working alliance and better social functioning (? = 1.45; 95% CI, 0.55 to 2.36). General self-efficacy mediated the effect of working alliance, explaining 14%-18% of the variance in associated outcomes. Global level of cognitive functioning, compliance, and self-efficacy influenced clinical and functional outcome more strongly than working alliance.
Better working alliance was weakly associated with fewer negative and disorganized symptoms and better social functioning. A strong working alliance may be a prerequisite for adherence to the specialized early intervention services treatment, providing the basis for positive treatment outcome.
Many countries allow for the use of restraint and seclusion in emergencies with psychiatric inpatients. Authors have suggested that the attitudes of staff are of importance to the use of restraint and seclusion.
To examine the attitudes to coercion at two Norwegian psychiatric units. In contrast to the idea that attitudes to coercion vary much within and between institutions, we hypothesized that staff's attitudes would be quite similar.
We distributed a questionnaire to staff at two psychiatric units in two Norwegian counties. Eight wards were included. The questionnaire contained fictitious case histories with one patient that was violent and one patient that was self-harming, and staff were asked to describe how they would intervene in each emergency. Emergency strategies were sorted according to degree of restrictiveness, from the highly restrictive (restraint, seclusion) to the unrestrictive (talking, offering medication). Data were analysed with regression analyses.
There was only a limited degree of variance in how staff at the different units and various groups of staff responded. Staff were more likely to favour a highly restrictive intervention when the patients were physically violent. Male staff and unskilled staff were significantly more prone to choosing a highly restrictive intervention.
Our hypothesis was confirmed, as there was a limited degree of variance in staff's responses with respect to degree of restrictiveness. The study supported the idea that a range of different interventions are used in emergency situations.