In nutritional research, the sensations of appetite have mostly been studied as a physiological phenomenon. However, in order to understand the significance of appetite for everyday eating habits, it is pertinent to include the social dimension. In a qualitative interview study, using qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews, we investigated how appetite was experienced and handled in the context of everyday life among 20 men and women. This report examines how qualitative dimensions of appetite are experienced and conceptualised in everyday life. Achieving what was described as proper satiety was found to be of decisive importance for daily eating habits. The experience of being full up, the duration of satiety and the sensuous pleasure of eating were all found to be central dimensions of proper satiety, the definition of which varied according to different social contexts. Whether one ate one's fill in the company of others, alone, at work or in one's spare time turned out to be of decisive importance. A more elaborate understanding of the social dimensions of appetite may help to improve endeavours to prevent overweight and obesity.
Viscous dietary fibers such as sodium alginate extracted from brown seaweed have received much attention lately for their potential role in energy regulation through the inhibition of energy intake and increase of satiety feelings. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect on postprandial satiety feelings, energy intake, and gastric emptying rate (GER), by the paracetamol method, of two different volumes of an alginate-based preload in normal-weight subjects. In a four-way placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial, 20 subjects (age: 25.9 ± 3.4 years; BMI: 23.5 ± 1.7 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to receive a 3% preload concentration of either low volume (LV; 9.9 g alginate in 330 ml) or high volume (HV; 15.0 g alginate in 500 ml) alginate-based beverage, or an iso-volume placebo beverage. The preloads were ingested 30 min before a fixed breakfast and again before an ad libitum lunch. Consumption of LV-alginate preload induced a significantly lower (8.0%) energy intake than the placebo beverage (P = 0.040) at the following lunch meal, without differences in satiety feelings or paracetamol concentrations. The HV alginate significantly increased satiety feelings (P = 0.038), reduced hunger (P = 0.042) and the feeling of prospective food consumption (P = 0.027), and reduced area under the curve (iAUC) paracetamol concentrations compared to the placebo (P = 0.05). However, only a 5.5% reduction in energy intake was observed for HV alginate (P = 0.20). Although they are somewhat contradictory, our results suggest that alginate consumption does affect satiety feelings and energy intake. However, further investigation on the volume of alginate administered is needed before inferring that this fiber has a possible role in short-term energy regulation.
Some individuals report weak appetite sensations and thus, have higher susceptibility to overeating. The aim of this study was (1) to evaluate the reliability of the satiety quotient (SQ), a marker of satiety efficiency; (2) to characterize the biopsychobehavioural profiles of individual presenting low satiety efficiency, i.e. the low satiety phenotype and (3) to document the impact of a weight loss program on these profiles. Sixty-nine obese men (BMI 33.6±3.0 kg/m², age 41.5±5.7 years) participated in a 16-week, non-restrictive weight loss intervention. Visual analog scales for appetite sensations in response to a test-meal were completed twice at baseline. Blood samples were collected before and during one test-meal. Questionnaires were administered before and after the intervention. The mean SQ showed good reliability (ICC=0.67). Baseline SQ scores tended to be negatively correlated with external hunger, anxiety and night eating symptoms (p
Research suggests a role for both fat mass and muscle mass in appetite regulation, but the longitudinal relationships between them have not yet been examined in children. The present study therefore aimed to explore the prospective relationships between fat mass, muscle mass and the appetitive traits food responsiveness and satiety responsiveness in middle childhood.
Food responsiveness and satiety responsiveness were measured using the parent-reported Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire in a representative sample of Norwegian 6?year olds, followed up at 8 and 10?years of age (n?=?807). Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance.
Applying a structural equation modeling framework we found that higher fat mass predicted greater increases in food responsiveness over time, whereas greater muscle mass predicted decreases in satiety responsiveness. This pattern was consistent both from ages 6 to 8 and from ages 8 to 10?years.
Our study is the first to reveal that fat mass and muscle mass predict distinct changes in different appetitive traits over time. Replication of findings in non-European populations are needed, as are studies of children in other age groups. Future studies should also aim to reveal the underlying mechanisms.
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Obesity is becoming an increasing health problem and results when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure. Food has a crucial role in weight management. The new EU legislation on nutrition and health claims permits the use of weight regulation and satiety related health claims on foods, if they are based on generally accepted scientific evidence. In this review the current knowledge on food properties, that have been proposed to affect satiety and/or energy expenditure and thus might be useful in weight control are considered, as part of the project "Substantiation of weight regulation and satiety related health claims on foods" funded by the Nordic Innovation Centre. At this point the scientific evidence of the short term effects of dietary fibers and proteins in relation to satiety seems to be convincing. However, it might be challenging to make product specific satiety and weight management claims as the dose response is not always known. On the other hand two step health claims might be applied, for example rich in dietary fibre - dietary fibre can increase satiety or rich in protein - protein can increase satiety.
The extent to which the dietary practices recommended by nutrition science are compatible with an enjoyable lifestyle is a recurring theme in the debate on food and health in Denmark. The aim of this study was to see in practice what problems arise when ordinary people are confronted with a healthy diet. Fourteen of the participants in an 8 month dietary intervention study were interviewed about their opinions of, and experiences with, a diet composed in accordance with the Nordic nutrition recommendations. The interviews were qualitative, in depth and semistructured. The participants were interviewed twice, the first time towards the end of the intervention and again 3 months after the intervention ended. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. For the participants, who were young students with a relatively high knowledge of nutrition, practical experience of a recommended diet was a series of surprises: the amount of food, its similarity to modern Danish food culture, its palatability, and the relatively small amount of dairy products in the diet were contrary to participants expectations. Participants found the recommended diet pleasant to live on, but expected certain economical and practical difficulties in applying it to everyday life outside the intervention. Hunger and satiety sensations changed and became more distinct. The results of the study indicate suggestions relevant for both industrial product development and nutrition information to the public.
Diets with a low glycemic index (GI) have been shown to improve glucose tolerance in both healthy and diabetic subjects. Two potential mechanisms are discussed in relation to long-term metabolic effects: a decreased demand for insulin in the postprandial phase and formation of short-chain fatty acids from fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates in the colon.
The objective was to study the effect of the GI and the indigestible carbohydrate--resistant starch (RS) and dietary fiber (DF)--content of cereal-based breakfasts on glucose tolerance at a second meal (lunch) in healthy subjects.
The effects of 7 test breakfasts with known GIs (GI: 52-99) and RS + DF contents (2-36 g) were evaluated. White-wheat bread was used as a reference breakfast (high GI, low RS + DF content). Glucose and insulin responses after the second meal were measured in healthy subjects. In addition, the satiating capacity of 4 of the 7 test breakfasts was estimated before and during the second meal.
Two of the 4 low-GI breakfasts improved glucose tolerance at the second meal. Only these 2 breakfasts were capable of postponing the in-between-meal fasting state. There was no measurable effect of fermentable carbohydrates on glucose tolerance at the second meal. The highest satiety score was associated with the barley breakfast that had a low GI and a high RS + DF content.
Glucose tolerance can improve in a single day. Slow absorption and digestion of starch from the breakfast meal, but not the content of indigestible carbohydrates in the breakfast meal, improved glucose tolerance at the second meal (lunch).
No study has examined a comprehensive set of approach and avoidance eating behaviours and their relationship with bodyweight among North American children. The purpose of this study was to test whether a variety of individual eating behaviours differed among weight status groups in a sample of Canadian pre-school children.
The sample included 4 and 5-year-old children (N=1 730), who attended a health center in and around Edmonton, Alberta, for a pre-school immunization shot between November 2005 and August 2007. A trained health assistant measured children's height and weight. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cut-off criteria were used to classify the children according to body weight status. Parents completed the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ). A one-way between-groups multivariate analysis of variance was performed to investigate eating behaviour differences by weight status groups while adjusting for sex and neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES).
The aim of this study was to verify if the addition of satiating nutrients and a satiating context effect could influence appetite sensations, spontaneous energy intake and food appreciation under conditions of standardized energy density of a meal. Eighteen non-obese men were submitted to a control, a satiating, and a context effect condition composed of a standardized breakfast and an ad libitum test lunch (macaroni entrée plus chocolate cake). The satiating macaroni contained more proteins, unsaturated fats, fibres and calcium than the control macaroni despite similar energy density, appearance and palatability. In the context effect condition, participants believed they were eating "a highly satiating macaroni", but were served the control macaroni. Appreciation of the macaronis, quantities of macaroni and cake consumed and 4-h satiating potential were measured for each condition. Quantities of macaroni and dessert consumed did not differ between conditions. Satiating potential was greater for the context effect meal compared to the control and/or the satiating meals up to 4h after its consumption. The context effect macaroni obtained higher appreciation rates than the control and the satiating macaronis. The context effect may positively influence the appreciation toward a meal and contribute to increase its satiety potential for many hours.
The "incretin effect" describes the enhanced insulin response from orally ingested glucose compared with intravenous glucose leading to identical postprandial plasma glucose excursions. It makes up to 60% of the postprandial insulin secretion but is diminished in type 2 diabetes. Gastrointestinal hormones promoting the incretin effect are called incretins. Glucagon-like peptide- 1 (GLP-1) is an important incretin. In vitro and animal data have demonstrated that GLP-1 increases beta-cell mass by stimulating islet cell neogenesis and by inhibiting apoptosis of islets. The improvement of beta-cell function can be indirectly observed from the increased insulin secretory capacity of humans receiving GLP-1 or incretin mimetics that act like GLP-1. Furthermore, GLP-1 inhibits glucagon secretion and rarely causes hypoglycemia. It may represent an attractive therapeutic method for type 2 diabetes because of its multiple effects, including a slowing of gastric emptying and the simulation of satiety by acting as a transmitter in the CNS. Native GLP-1 is degraded rapidly upon intravenous or subcutaneous administration and is therefore not feasable for routine therapy. Long-acting GLP-1 analogs (e.g., Liraglutide [Novo Nordisk, Copenhagen, Denmark]) and exenadin-4 (Exenatide [Eli Lilly, Indianapolis, IN]) that are resistant to degradation, called "incretin mimetics," are being investigated in clinical trials. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors (e.g., Vildagliptin [Novartis, Basel, Switzerland]) that inhibit the enzyme responsible for incretin degradation are also under study.