The investigations conducted in the construction area of Adyche and Sakhalin water reservoirs made it possible to work out the prognosis for the changes in the situation on diphyllobothriasis. In the area of Adyche water reservoir the population invasion with D. latum is likely to increase, while in the area of Sakhalin water reservoir the situation on D. klebanovskii sp. no. will remain unchanged.
To improve the efficacy of measures for parasitic diseases prevention the author recommends, besides routine methods, such as detection and treatment of patients and health educational activities, preventive and current sanitary parasitological survey of environmental objects to be carried out on a wider scale. Parasitologic indexes and their quantitative criteria are presented, as are the basic sanitary and administrative documents which should be the guidelines for parasitologists, sanitary physicians, and epidemiologists in preventive and current sanitary surveillance of environmental objects at foci of parasitic diseases.
The paper presents the results of assessing the conformity of building, reconstruction, and highway maintenance with the standards, by establishing the size of a sanitary break during examination of design materials in case of the Saint Petersburg ring road, the West high-speed diameter, E-18 Scandinavia, surface high-speed line passenger railway routes in Saint Petersburg, etc.
Surveys made in the Sverdlovsk Region suggest that a procedure for evaluating a risk in combination with ecological and epidemiological surveys greatly enhances the potentialities of predicting and detecting human environment-related diseases and both approaches deserve a wide introduction into the socio-sanitary monitoring system.
Questions regarding control over a water fluoridation system in a British Columbia (BC) community led to a drinking water management survey in 1997-98.
A questionnaire was constructed based on published drinking water control and management criteria and was sent to 91 communities.
73/91 surveys were returned (80% response rate); 31 reported a protected water supply system, 40 reported logging and/or cattle grazing in watershed areas, 25 reported a lack of primary disinfection. Water fluoridation was reported in 12 locations, 3 of which did not monitor fluoride levels. Testing for protozoans was done routinely in 19 locations, 15 using approved laboratories. 15 water contamination events were reported, 9 of biological origin. Statistically significant associations were found between contamination events and: wooden delivery systems, lack of primary chlorination, increased number of protozoan tests, and increased number of personnel.
At the time of the survey in British Columbia, a number of communities were vulnerable to preventable drinking water contamination.
Comment In: Can J Public Health. 2002 Jan-Feb;93(1):10-211925692
Once central figures in American public health, waterworks engineers are no longer involved in many decisions made about the public water supplies. This paper argues that the profession's response to the early fluoridation movement of the 1940s and 1950s marked a change in the relationship between waterworks engineers and the other constitutive groups in public health and contributed to the disenfranchisement of the waterworks profession. Sensing a potentially divisive issue, two leaders of the profession, Abel Wolman and Linn Enslow, took steps they hoped would prevent a rift within the profession and allow waterworks engineering to continue its association with the wider public health community. Although the leaders saw the fluoridation issue differently, neither encouraged the profession to consider it openly or to take up the broader question of what limits, if any, should be placed on treating water supplies to meet human needs. Instead, they opted to locate authority for fluoridation outside the waterworks profession with dentists, doctors, and public health administrators. As a result, waterworks engineers conceded a great deal of the status and prestige associated with decision-making roles in community health issues and have largely faded from view.
Cites: Am J Public Health Nations Health. 1944 Feb;34(2):144-718015944
Comment In: Am J Public Health. 1997 Jul;87(7):1235-69240124