In this paper there was performed an analysis of the application of sanitary norms and rules concerning sanitary protective zones and sanitary classification of enterprises, buildings and other facilities, including requirements for the sufficiency and accuracy of information in the performance of projects in sanitary protection zone (SPZ). There is presented an analysis of regulations that set requirements for implementation of mapping works in drafting the SPZ. The design of the SPZ was shown to be, on the one hand, the element of territorial planning subjects of the Russian Federation, on the other hand, the object of capital construction. The substantiations of requirements for graphic and text content, structure, and composition of data, sources of their obtaining, methods of data convergence are reported. There are revealed inconsistencies in Sanitary Regulations and Norms (SanPins) and in their relationship with the Town Planning and Land Code and other laws, and regulations adopted in their development.
To improve the efficacy of measures for parasitic diseases prevention the author recommends, besides routine methods, such as detection and treatment of patients and health educational activities, preventive and current sanitary parasitological survey of environmental objects to be carried out on a wider scale. Parasitologic indexes and their quantitative criteria are presented, as are the basic sanitary and administrative documents which should be the guidelines for parasitologists, sanitary physicians, and epidemiologists in preventive and current sanitary surveillance of environmental objects at foci of parasitic diseases.
Surveys made in the Sverdlovsk Region suggest that a procedure for evaluating a risk in combination with ecological and epidemiological surveys greatly enhances the potentialities of predicting and detecting human environment-related diseases and both approaches deserve a wide introduction into the socio-sanitary monitoring system.
Sociohygienic monitoring on the railway transport, which is a branch part of the state sociohygienic monitoring system, includes observation, analysis, assessment, and prediction of the health status and habitat of railway workers and population to be served, as well as the establishment of associations of the health status with environmental factors. Standard legal, scientific-and-methodological, and organizational bases have been set up for branch monitoring. The basic parameters and the procedure for interaction of branch and territorial entities have been defined.
The methods for integral assessments of human health indices were tested at different territorial units within the framework of development of sociohygienic monitoring. A microterritory as an information unit is proposed as the most adequate object of observation. The method of integral health indices is recommended for their assessment at the level of microterritories, integral entropy should be used for mapping an urban dwelling area.
The chemical environmental pollution of industrial urban areas was comprehensively assessed. There was a correlation between some diseases and chemicals; some pollutants exert unidirectional adverse effects on human health. As a way of influencing the man-made load, the authors suggest that an increasing coefficient to the allocations to the health insurance fund should be introduced for the enterprises that cause the proven hazard to human health. The addressing approach to analyzing morbidity rates increases the validity of studies establishing the relationship of environmental factors to health indices.