In this paper there was performed an analysis of the application of sanitary norms and rules concerning sanitary protective zones and sanitary classification of enterprises, buildings and other facilities, including requirements for the sufficiency and accuracy of information in the performance of projects in sanitary protection zone (SPZ). There is presented an analysis of regulations that set requirements for implementation of mapping works in drafting the SPZ. The design of the SPZ was shown to be, on the one hand, the element of territorial planning subjects of the Russian Federation, on the other hand, the object of capital construction. The substantiations of requirements for graphic and text content, structure, and composition of data, sources of their obtaining, methods of data convergence are reported. There are revealed inconsistencies in Sanitary Regulations and Norms (SanPins) and in their relationship with the Town Planning and Land Code and other laws, and regulations adopted in their development.
Sociohygienic monitoring on the railway transport, which is a branch part of the state sociohygienic monitoring system, includes observation, analysis, assessment, and prediction of the health status and habitat of railway workers and population to be served, as well as the establishment of associations of the health status with environmental factors. Standard legal, scientific-and-methodological, and organizational bases have been set up for branch monitoring. The basic parameters and the procedure for interaction of branch and territorial entities have been defined.
The methods for integral assessments of human health indices were tested at different territorial units within the framework of development of sociohygienic monitoring. A microterritory as an information unit is proposed as the most adequate object of observation. The method of integral health indices is recommended for their assessment at the level of microterritories, integral entropy should be used for mapping an urban dwelling area.
The chemical environmental pollution of industrial urban areas was comprehensively assessed. There was a correlation between some diseases and chemicals; some pollutants exert unidirectional adverse effects on human health. As a way of influencing the man-made load, the authors suggest that an increasing coefficient to the allocations to the health insurance fund should be introduced for the enterprises that cause the proven hazard to human health. The addressing approach to analyzing morbidity rates increases the validity of studies establishing the relationship of environmental factors to health indices.
Developed parasitological passports for sewage treatment works have been issued in the subjects of the Southern Federal District. Its some regions have areas inadequately covered by centralized water drainage. New waste treatment technologies and disinvasion agents have not been virtually introduced. No proper significance is attached to the parasitological studies of epidemiologically significant substrates, such as waste waters and their sludge. The positive results of dehelmintization and disinvasion are stated from the absence of helminth eggs rather than from the comparative results of sewer clearing from the invasion principle and their viability loss. Standard guides corresponding to the profile of objects are inadequately used in day-to-day work.
Among 701 Copenhagen plumbers we examined the lung function of 23 never smokers, who had removed asbestos insulation and intermittently been exposed to high levels of asbestos for about 25 years without being exposed to welding fume. The plumbers had significantly lower TLC, MEF25, MEF50, closing volume and closing capacity in comparison to 23 never smoking electricians without asbestos exposure. There was no reduction in TLCO. Pulmonary clearance of aerosolized 99mTc-DTPA was normal indicating that the asbestos had not induced increases in pulmonary epithelial permeability. However, in 11 of the 23 plumbers the 99mTc-DTPA ventilation scintigrams had a slightly irregular and spotty appearance, which together with the results of the lung function tests are suggestive of small airways' dysfunction. None of the subjects had symptoms or clinical signs of lung disease.