Certain pheno- and genotype properties of S. typhimurium and some other representatives of Enterobacteriaceae resistant to antimicrobial drugs were studied. The strains were isolated from children with salmonellosis within 4 months when an infection hospital was subjected to microbiological observation. It was shown that by their antibiotic resistance, phagovars and molecular weights of the plasmid DNas, the strains S. typhimurium were similar to those isolated during hospital infections. The conjugative plasmids responsible for antibiotic resistance in some strains did not differ in their molecular weights and antibiotic resistance markers. The strains S. typhimurium similar in their pheno- and genotype properties were isolated only from 2 patients which allowed one to consider it possible that the patients were infected by the strains of common genesis. Analysis of nonpathogenic representatives of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from the patients along with the S. typhimurium strains confirmed the fact that the patients were infected with the same pathogenic strain.
Distinct differences in a number of biological properties between S. typhimurium hospital strains and cultures of animal origin have been revealed. During 1975-1980 changes in the fermentation of lysine were observed in hospital strains and the retarded fermentation of sorbitol was revealed in strains of animal origin. S. typhimurium 1R, a new highly virulent biovariant resistant to antibiotics, and enzymatic varieties of biovar 11S were isolated. The nonstability of enzymatic differences between hospital strains and cultures of animal origin necessitates their constant observation in order to differentiate these cultures for the purpose of epidemic analysis. Complete correlation between the properties of cultures circulating on a limited territory and the character of morbidity in Salmonella infection demonstrates the epidemiological importance of the intraspecific differentiation tests under study.
Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins has increased in Salmonella worldwide, and is a concern in both hospital and community settings. The aim of this report was to investigate cefoxitin-resistant Salmonella isolates identified from human clinical cases across Canada.
Cefoxitin-resistant isolates, defined as having an MIC > or = 32 mg/L, were screened for the ampC classes DHA, FOX, ENT and CIT in a multiplex PCR followed by sequence analysis. Plasmid analysis by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and replicon typing was performed on a convenience sample of cefoxitin-resistant Salmonella.
In 2005, 5.3% (181/3442) and in 2006, 3.1% (102/3250) of Salmonella isolates collected from all provinces across Canada displayed cefoxitin resistance. Seventy-one out of 283 (25.1%) were multidrug resistant (MDR), as defined by resistance to at least three different antibiotic classes. The bla(CMY-2) gene was harboured by 96.8% (274/283) of the cefoxitin-resistant isolates. Analysis of CMY-2 plasmids revealed that 19.7% contained genes conferring resistance to multiple antimicrobials. Replicon typing of transformant CMY-2 plasmid DNA revealed the predominance of I1-Igamma and A/C. Of the MDR CMY-2 plasmids, 75% contained replicon type A/C. RFLP patterns of CMY-2 plasmids revealed clusters corresponding to the I1-Igamma and A/C replicon types.
Incompatibility group I1-Igamma is the most prevalent of the Salmonella CMY-2 plasmids, while A/C is associated with MDR CMY-2 plasmids.
Plasmid profiling, phage typing and antimicrobial resistance typing have been carried out on 736 isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis collected in Denmark during the period 1980 to 1990. Strains originated from cases of human salmonellosis, broiler poultry flocks, layer poultry flocks, quarantined imported poultry, environmental samples from hatchery units, and from bovines. Phage type (PT) 1 was found to be the most common type among isolates of poultry origin (57.6%) followed by PT4 (28.8%). Isolates belonging to PT8 were found exclusively in imported birds. Phage typing of a representative sample of human isolates revealed the predominance, as in most other Western European countries, of PT4 (61.8%). PT1, however, was found in 17.0% of human strains, a much higher incidence than expected. Antibiotic resistance was observed in 4 out of 107 human isolates (3.7%) and 2 out of 205 non-human isolates (1%) tested.
Salmonella enterica spp. enterica serotype Typhimurium (STM) is the most common agent of domestically acquired salmonellosis in Finland. Subtyping methods which allow the characterization of STM are essential for effective laboratory-based STM surveillance and for recognition of outbreaks. This study describes the diversity of Finnish STM isolates using phage typing, antimicrobial susceptible testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), and compares the discriminatory power and the concordance of these methods.
A total of 375 sporadic STM isolates were analysed. The isolates were divided into 31 definite phage (DT) types, dominated by DT1 (47 % of the isolates), U277 (9 % of the isolates) and DT104 (8 % of the isolates). Of all the isolates, 62 % were susceptible to all the 12 antimicrobials tested and 11 % were multidrug resistant. Subtyping resulted in 83 different XbaI-PFGE profiles and 111 MLVA types. The three most common XbaI-PFGE profiles (STYM1, STYM7 and STYM8) and one MLVA profile with three single locus variants accounted for 56 % and 49 % of the STM isolates, respectively. The studied isolates showed a genetic similarity of more than 70 % by XbaI-PFGE. In MLVA, 71 % of the isolates lacked STTR6 and 77 % missed STTR10p loci. Nevertheless, the calculated Simpson's diversity index for XbaI-PFGE was 0.829 (95 % CI 0.792-0.865) and for MLVA 0.867 (95 % CI 0.835-0.898). However, the discriminatory power of the 5-loci MLVA varied among the phage types. The highest concordance of the results was found between XbaI-PFGE and phage typing (adjusted Wallace coefficient was 0.833 and adjusted Rand coefficient was 0.627).
In general, the calculated discriminatory power was higher for genotyping methods (MLVA and XbaI-PFGE) than for phenotyping methods (phage typing). Overall, comparable diversity indices were calculated for PFGE and MLVA (both DI?>?0.8). However, MLVA was phage type dependent providing better discrimination of the most common phage types. Furthermore, 5-loci MLVA was a less laborious method and easier to interpret than XbaI-PFGE. Thus, the laboratory-based surveillance of the Finnish human STM infections has been conducted with a combination of phage typing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and 5-loci MLVA since January 2014.
Cites: BMC Bioinformatics. 2004 Jan 12;5:414715089
A total of 244 CMY-2 plasmids from 5 separate studies involving Escherichia coli and Salmonella human clinical cases as well as E. coli from feedlots and water sources were examined. Genetically similar CMY-2 plasmids isolated from either E. coli or Salmonella from human, animal, and environmental sources are widely distributed across Canada and cluster into replicon types I1, A/C, and K/B and an unidentified group.