Study biological properties of salmonella, isolated from clinical materials and water of Don river.
Salmonella strains of various serovars were used in the study. Biochemical characteristics were studied by generally accepted methods, antigenic properties were evaluated in agglutination reactions, virulence was determined by Dlm for laboratory animals, antibiotics sensitivity was verified by disc-diffusion method.
The presence of pathogenicity factors in isolated strains was shown: hemolytic activity--in 64 and 36.8% of cases, DNAse activity--in 28 and 26%, respectively in clinical and wild strains. Microorganism dose, resulting in death of all the animals (LD100) did not depend on serovar of salmonella and varied from 10(3) to 10(10) PFU/ml.
Clinical strains were established to possess higher virulence and resistance to antibiotics compared with strains isolated from the aquatic envionment.
Food Safety Intervention Technologies, Eastern Regional Research Center, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
The efficacy of hydrogen peroxide treatment on the inactivation of Salmonella spp. inoculated on the external surface of cantaloupe and honeydew melon was investigated. Salmonella was inoculated onto whole cantaloupe and honeydew melon to a final concentration of 4.65 log(10) CFU/cm(2) and 3.13 log(10) CFU/g, respectively. Inoculated whole melons stored at 5 degrees C for up to 7 days were washed with water, 2.5% and 5% hydrogen peroxide at day 0 and 5. Hydrogen peroxide (2.5% and 5%) treatments of whole melon for 5 min caused a 3 log(10) CFU/cm(2) reduction of the indigenous surface microflora and a 3.0 log(10) CFU/cm(2) reduction in Salmonella spp. on all melon surfaces. The efficacy of the hydrogen peroxide treatments was less when the interval between inoculation and treatment of cantaloupe exceeded 24 h. Unlike cantaloupe fresh-cut pieces, Salmonella was not recovered from fresh-cut pieces prepared from treated whole honeydew melon. Growth of Salmonella occurred in cantaloupe fresh-cut pieces stored at 10 or 20 degrees C, and by 2 weeks, levels reached approximately 1 log CFU/g. A rapid decline in appearance and overall acceptability was observed in fresh-cut pieces prepared from untreated whole cantaloupe. While Salmonella was recovered from fresh-cut pieces from and whole treated cantaloupe, sanitizing the surface of contaminated whole melons with hydrogen peroxide before and after cutting and storage of the fresh-cut pieces at 5 degrees C can enhance the microbial safety and acceptability rating for about 2 weeks after processing.
Consumption of minimally-processed, or fresh-cut, fruit and vegetables has rapidly increased in recent years, but there have also been several reported outbreaks associated with the consumption of these products. Sodium hypochlorite is currently the most widespread disinfectant used by fresh-cut industries. Neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) is a novel disinfection system that could represent an alternative to sodium hypochlorite. The aim of the study was to determine whether NEW could replace sodium hypochlorite in the fresh-cut produce industry. The effects of NEW, applied in different concentrations, at different treatment temperatures and for different times, in the reduction of the foodborne pathogens Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 and against the spoilage bacterium Erwinia carotovora were tested in lettuce. Lettuce was artificially inoculated by dipping it in a suspension of the studied pathogens at 10(8), 10(7) or 10(5) cfu ml(-1), depending on the assay. The NEW treatment was always compared with washing with deionized water and with a standard hypochlorite treatment. The effect of inoculum size was also studied. Finally, the effect of NEW on the indigenous microbiota of different packaged fresh-cut products was also determined. The bactericidal activity of diluted NEW (containing approximately 50 ppm of free chlorine, pH 8.60) against E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, L. innocua and E. carotovora on lettuce was similar to that of chlorinated water (120 ppm of free chlorine) with reductions of 1-2 log units. There were generally no significant differences when treating lettuce with NEW for 1 and 3 min. Neither inoculation dose (10(7) or 10(5) cfu ml(-1)) influenced the bacterial reduction achieved. Treating fresh-cut lettuce, carrot, endive, corn salad and 'Four seasons' salad with NEW 1:5 (containing about 50 ppm of free chlorine) was equally effective as applying chlorinated water at 120 ppm. Microbial reduction depended on the vegetable tested: NEW and sodium hypochlorite treatments were more effective on carrot and endive than on iceberg lettuce, 'Four seasons' salad and corn salad. The reductions of indigenous microbiota were smaller than those obtained with the artificially inoculated bacteria tested (0.5-1.2 log reduction). NEW seems to be a promising disinfection method as it would allow to reduce the amount of free chlorine used for the disinfection of fresh-cut produce by the food industry, as the same microbial reduction as sodium hypochlorite is obtained. This would constitute a safer, 'in situ', and easier to handle way of ensuring food safety.