The comparative analysis of 133 S. typhi clinical strains isolated from patients and carriers in Dnepropetrovsk Province in 1978-1987 was carried out. As shown by this analysis, 10 Vi phage types were represented in the set of strains under study, phage types A and F1 being the most numerous ones. Phage type F1 occurred less frequently among the strains isolated from carriers. 31.1% of the strains were found to contain plasmids with different molecular weight ranging from 96 to 0.5 MD. The occurrence of plasmid-containing strains remained at the same level during the whole period under study. Low-molecular plasmids occurred more frequently in the strains isolated from carriers. The minimal suppressive concentrations of a number of antibiotics, such as penicillin, ampicillin, monomycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, rifampicin and streptomycin, were determined. 7% of the strains were resistant to penicillin, 9% to monomycin, 15%--to tetracycline and 2.6% to chloramphenicol. The correlation between penicillin and monomycin resistance of the strains and the presence of the plasmid with a molecular weight of 60 MD in these strains was established. All strains were shown to be highly variable in the degree of their virulence: from 10(2) to 10(8). The strains isolated from patients possessed greater virulence.
The intestinal infections are an attractive starting place in arctic epidemiology because the mass behavior of these diseases has been well worked out through long study in temperate and tropical regions. Also, the required bacteriological procedures are relatively simple, a consideration of moment in the arctic where field conditions are as difficult as they are. Alaska was chosen as the first study area. As a cultural and administrative part of the United States, conditions were good for communication and cooperation.The primary purpose was to determine under arctic conditions the mode of transmission of acute infectious diarrhea of man, and to learn something of prevalence and seasonal incidence. Also, intestinal parasites of dog and man were surveyed in two villages, and the ecology of fish tapeworm was examined in one area.
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 1706.
Cited in: Fortuine, Robert. 1968. The Health of the Eskimos: a bibliography 1857-1967. Dartmouth College Libraries. Citation number 682.
Acute intestinal infections were clinically and epidemiologically studied in children residing in the towns with different quantitative and qualitative composition of ambient air pollutants and in the districts of a town, which differ in the level of technogenic ambient air pollution. Six hundred and eighty patients with different types of shigellosis and 421 patients with salmonellosis admitted to the infection hospitals of the towns of Angarsk (an intensively polluted locality) and Irkutsk (a better ecological area) were examined in 1995 to 2000. The technogenic ambient air pollution was found to exert a noticeable impact on the incidence with S. sonnei dysentery. In poor environmental areas, all the infections under study are characterized by a great burden, duration, more severe clinical symptoms, and poor laboratory changes in the presence of a decreased responsiveness.
Acute disseminated toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in three wild arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) that were found dead in the same locality on Svalbard (Norway). The animals included one adult female and two 4-months-old pups. The adult fox was severely jaundiced. Necropsy revealed multifocal, acute, necrotizing hepatitis, acute interstitial pneumonia, and scattered foci of brain gliosis, often associated with Toxoplasma tachyzoites. One pup also had Toxoplasma-associated meningitis. In addition, the latter animal was infected with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype 2b and Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 1 (PT1), which may have contributed to the severity of the Toxoplasma infection in this animal. The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was confirmed by positive immunohistochemistry and detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in serum of all foxes. The animals were negative for Neospora caninum, canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus, and rabies virus on immunolabelling of tissue sections and smears.
Source-separated blackwater from low-flush toilets contains plant-available nutrients and can be used as a fertilizer. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact on pathogen inactivation when treating blackwater with urea and/or lime. Blackwater was spiked with Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157, Enterococcus faecalis, and Ascaris suum eggs, and treated with urea and/or lime in concentrations up to 0.1% w/w. The bottles were kept in a storage facility (manure slurry tank) for 102 days while monitoring the pathogen concentrations. The treatment time needed to meet the requirement for Salmonella and E. coli reduction could be reduced at least six-fold. The enterococci were more persistent, and only the highest treatment doses had a significantly higher inactivation than the controls. The Ascaris egg viability was only reduced by around 50%, so higher urea/lime doses and/or longer treatment times are required to fulfill the treatment requirements of 3 log10 reductions of parasite eggs.