More than 70% of seriously ill patients with cancer suffer from xerostomia and the associated problems of swallowing, chewing and speaking. This study aims to investigate whether treatment with acupuncture is a viable option for hospice patients with xerostomia. During a 2-year period, 117 patients were assessed for xerostomia. Eighty-two patients were found to have moderate xerostomia. Sixty-seven fulfilled the criteria for inclusion. Of these, 14 were included but only eight completed the study. Ten acupuncture treatments were given during a 5-week period. The effect of acupuncture was measured using a visual analogue scale, and by measuring the saliva production before and after the series of treatment. The results show that all the patients experienced alleviation of dryness of the mouth and the associated symptoms, and thus benefited from the acupuncture treatment. However, conducting a 5-week acupuncture intervention study is not feasible at an inpatient hospice due to the patients being too close to death.
The aim was to study whether the anticholinergic burden of drugs is related to xerostomia and salivary secretion among community-dwelling elderly people.
Anticholinergic drugs have been shown to be a risk factor for dry mouth, but little is known about the effects of cumulative exposure to anticholinergic drugs measured by anticholinergic burden on salivary secretion or xerostomia.
The study population consisted of 152 community-dwelling, dentate, non-smoking, older people from the Oral Health GeMS study. The data were collected by interviews and clinical examinations. Anticholinergic burden was determined using the Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS). A Poisson regression model with robust error variance was used to estimate relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI 95%).
Participants with a high-anticholinergic burden (ADS = 3) were more likely to have xerostomia (RR: 3.17; CI: 1.44-6.96), low-unstimulated salivary flow (
The aim of this study was to examine salivary flow rate and its association with the use of medication in a representative sample of 76-, 81-, and 86-year-old subjects, totaling 368. In this study, 23% (n = 80) of the subjects were unmedicated. From one to three daily medications were used by 47% (n = 168) and more than four medications by 30% (n = 104). The most commonly used medications were nitrates, digitalis or anti-arrhythmic drugs (47.7%), analgesics and antipyretics (32.6%), and diuretics (29.5%). The mean number used daily was significantly higher in 86-year-olds than in the two younger age groups (p
OBJECTIVES: This study describes the association of yeasts and denture stomatitis with behavioral and biologic factors. STUDY DESIGN: Seven hundred eighty 55-year-old citizens of Oulu, Finland, were examined clinically; 452 of them had complete dentures. Salivary yeasts and lactobacillus counts were detected through the use of Oricult-N and Dentocult-LB dip-slide techniques. Lifestyle factors were measured by means of questions concerning physical activity, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and dietary habits. Other background variables used in cross-tabulations and logistic regression analysis were unstimulated salivary secretion rate, retention of denture, oral hygiene, gender, and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: The prevalence of denture stomatitis was greater among subjects with an unhealthy lifestyle, subjects with higher lactobacillus counts, and subjects with poor oral hygiene. Salivary secretion rate and smoking were associated with the presence of yeasts, but general lifestyle measures were not. CONCLUSION: The presence of yeasts tended to be associated with biologic factors, but behavioral factors reflecting lifestyle may be more important in the development of denture stomatitis.
Eating disorders are often associated with regurgitation of gastric contents into the mouth and dental erosion. In this study the dental status was evaluated in bulimic patients. Thirty-five bulimics, diagnosed in the Outpatient Departments of Psychiatry and Adolescent Psychiatry of the University Central Hospital in Helsinki, and 105 controls matched for age, sex, and educational level were examined clinically, and the factors associated with dental erosion and caries were evaluated in an interview. Severe dental erosion and dental caries were significantly commoner among bulimics than controls. Bulimics commonly had a low salivary flow rate, but other apparent risk factors of dental erosion did not differ from those of controls. A feeling of dry mouth was commoner among bulimics than controls, and bulimics had an increased tooth sensitivity to cold and touch. More should be done to protect teeth from dental erosion among bulimics, because loss of tooth tissue remains even if the eating disorder disappears.
In order to study the way old age influence oral health, the Copenhagen Oral Health Senior Cohort (COHS) has been established.
To describe the design, measurement procedures, and baseline values for COHS including spatial distribution of restorations and dental caries as well as reasons for non-participation.
Seven hundred and eighty-three individuals aged 65 years or older, from a total of 1918 invited elderly people, underwent an interview regarding oral health-related behaviour and a clinical oral examination including measurement of unstimulated whole saliva flow rate.
Twelve percent of the COHS was edentulous. The number of dental restorations was higher for women compared to men; however, men had more caries than women. Coronal caries was most frequent on mesial and distal surfaces and on the maxillary incisors and canines; root caries was most frequent on labial surfaces and evenly distributed within the dentition. Only 41% of all invited elderly people accepted the invitation, with old age and poor health being the primary reasons for non-participation.
The baseline values for COHS show that a substantial proportion of the participants had retained a natural dentition and that dental caries was prevalent with the anterior maxillary teeth being most affected.
Little attention has been directed towards identifying the relationship between physical exercise, dental erosive wear and salivary secretion. The study aimed i) to describe the prevalence and severity of dental erosive wear among a group of physically active young adults, ii) to describe the patterns of dietary consumption and lifestyle among these individuals and iii) to study possible effect of exercise on salivary flow rate.
Young members (age range 18-32 years) of a fitness-centre were invited to participate in the study. Inclusion criteria were healthy young adults training hard at least twice a week. A non-exercising comparison group was selected from an ongoing study among 18-year-olds. Two hundred and twenty participants accepted an intraoral examination and completed a questionnaire. Seventy of the exercising participants provided saliva samples. The examination was performed at the fitness-centre or at a dental clinic (comparison group), using tested erosive wear system (VEDE). Saliva sampling (unstimulated and stimulated) was performed before and after exercise. Occlusal surfaces of the first molars in both jaws and the labial and palatal surfaces of the upper incisors and canines were selected as index teeth.
Dental erosive wear was registered in 64% of the exercising participants, more often in the older age group, and in 20% of the comparison group. Enamel lesions were most observed in the upper central incisors (33%); dentine lesions in lower first molar (27%). One fourth of the participants had erosive wear into dentine, significantly more in males than in females (p = 0.047). More participants with erosive wear had decreased salivary flow during exercise compared with the non-erosion group (p
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this survey was to study the sensation of oral dryness and its underlying factors in the 55-year-old population of Oulu (a medium-sized Finnish town), 780 of whom (77%) participated. METHOD: In addition to the examination of oral health status and salivary flow rate measurements, depressive symptoms were determined on the basis of the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSDS). The participants were also interviewed about their health, medication, physical health, physical activity, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, and factors related to their work. RESULTS: The prevalence of subjective sensations of dry mouth was 25.8% among men and 33.3% among women (p = 0.025). A statistically significant association was found between a subjective sensation of dry mouth and a low unstimulated flow rate, regular smoking, xerogenic medication, and the presence of at least one illness connected with dry mouth. Those who had a sensation of dry mouth also thought their physical condition and their health to be poorer and more often had a high rate of depressive symptoms. After the confounding factors had been added stepwise into the logistic regression model, depressive symptoms were still significantly associated with the sensation of oral dryness. CONCLUSIONS: When evaluating the causes of the sensation of dry mouth, the possibility of depression as an underlying factor should be considered.
The effect of complete denture renewal on oral health was evaluated both subjectively and clinically at follow-up 30 months (range 19-36 months) after completion of treatment in 42 edentulous patients (31 women and 11 men, aged 34-76 years) treated by dental students during 1989-1992. Ninety per cent of the patients were satisfied with the new appearance of their dentures and 71% with the way they functioned. When comparing the base data and results from follow-up it seems that general health and medication, anatomical circumstances, salivary flow rates and denture wearing habits in edentulous subjects do not change significantly over a few years. The main effects of denture renewal are seen in patient satisfaction, and clinically in the improved condition of oral mucosa and better fit and acceptable occlusion of dentures.