The secretion of the ABH antigens in saliva was tested in indigenous individuals of several populations: Icelanders in Reykjavik and Husavik (northeastern Iceland), Aland Islanders, Finno-Ugrians (Finns, Finnish Lapps, Komi) and Eskimos (Augpilagtok, northwestern Greenland). The frequencies of ABH non-secretors among the Icelanders (28-36%) were among the highest ever noted in Europeans. Among Alanders and Swedes on the Finnish mainland the frequency (around 20%) was comparable to Swedish values but considerably higher than among Finns (13-14%). The values among northeastern Finns and Komi (about 9%) were intermediate between values among Lapps (below 5%) and Scandinavians (15-26%), excluding Icelanders (28-41%). The average frequency of non-secretors among Lapps in Finland (2.2 +/- 0.5%) was the lowest observed among white populations. Like many other arctic populations of the Mongolian race, the Greenland Eskimos had a very low frequency of non-secretors. It is probable that the non-secretor allele ABH*se was absent from the ancient Lapps and Greenland Eskimos but introduced by invading populations. It is concluded that the ABH*se allele frequencies vary much more among northern European populations than hitherto appreciated. Recent studies indicate that the non-secretor status of the ABH blood group substances in mucous body fluids is associated with pathological conditions of the mucous membranes of the embryologically related digestive and respiratory systems, particularly with duodenal ulcer and gastric (pre)malignancies but probably also with pulmonary dysfunction. In view of these disadvantages of the ABH non-secretor status the high frequency of ABH*se in Icelanders is a paradoxical phenomenon. The frequency of ABH non-secretors among the founders (Vikings) of Iceland may have been considerably higher than among the present populations in northwestern Europe. The increase in northwestern direction of the ABH*se allele frequencies supports this hypothesis; the dilution effect has not been as strong in Iceland as on the European continent.
BACKGROUND: We have previously reported an association between low IgA and allergic manifestations in early childhood (0-2 years) and have now followed our cohort for an additional 2 years. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in a longitudinal community-based cohort study the association between maturation of Ig production and allergic manifestations in the first 4 years of life. METHODS: A cohort of 161 randomly selected children was followed from birth to the age of 42-48 months and evaluated at 18-23 months (EV1; n = 179) and again at the age of 42-48 months (EV2; n = 161). Diagnoses were made with the help of a clinical questionnaire, physical examination and skin prick tests (SPTs) to 10 common allergens. Serum immunoglobulins were measured at EV1 and EV2, and salivary IgA (sal-IgA) at EV2. RESULTS: Serum IgA, IgE, IgG1, IgG2 and IgG4 increased from 2 to 4 years of age (P
The inactivated poliovirus vaccine is heat stabile, gives high serum IgG concentrations but less pronounced mucosal immunity and must be given as repeated injections. A new enhanced-potency Dutch inactivated vaccine could circumvent these difficulties. We compared antibody concentrations measured as neutralization or ELISA titers, and avidity of serum and salivary antibodies in children vaccinated with three doses of the earlier Swedish vaccine given over nine months or the new antigen-rich vaccine. After three doses, but not after two, serum neutralization titers for type 1 and type 3 poliovirus were higher using the new vaccine but secretory IgA levels in saliva were similar. The avidity of the serum IgG antibodies was significantly higher after two doses of the new vaccine than after three doses of the old. Thus the new vaccine gives excellent antibody responses of high titers and avidities, but should preferably be given in three doses.
To document HIV prevalence/incidence trends from 1995-2000 and associated risk factors among injection drug users (IDUs) in Eastern Central Canada as an indication of harm reduction strategy effectiveness.
Nonnominal cross-sectional data (one-time participants) and longitudinal data (repeat participants) were collected using convenience sampling. Participants provided informed consent for face-to-face interviews focused on injection drug use and sexual practices during the previous 6 months; oral fluid samples were taken for HIV testing by enzyme immunoassay. Unique encrypted codes for initially HIV-negative repeat participants permitted incidence rate calculations.
In all, 6387 IDUs (median age, 31 years; range, 13-67; males, 73.5%) participated on 9724 occasions. HIV prevalence ranged from 4.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.9-6.5) in semiurban areas to 20.1% (95% CI, 17.6-22.7) in Ottawa, Ontario. HIV incidence was 6.0 (95%CI, 4.5-7.6) per 100 person-years (py) in Montréal, Québec, 3.2 (95% CI, 2.2-4.2) per 100 py in Québec City and 7.0 (95% CI, 4.1-9.8) per 100 py in Ottawa/Hull. Reusing other IDUs' needles was reported by 38.4%. In multivariate logistic regression, IDUs injecting for 6 or more years were more likely to be HIV positive, particularly if cocaine was the predominant drug injected. Multivariate Cox regression revealed higher HIV incidence among those who predominantly injected cocaine, reused others' needles, had injected 6 years or more, injected with strangers, or were men reporting commercial sex work.
These results reveal a volatile situation of continuing HIV transmission among IDUs in Eastern Central Canada.
In this study we examined whether salivary hormones, physical activity and adiposity were correlated with secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and frequency of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) in 43 early-pubertal and 59 late-pubertal girls. Physical activity was measured using accelerometers and relative body fat was assessed using bioelectrical impendence. Resting saliva samples were obtained between 1500 and 1800 hr and assayed for sIgA, cortisol and testosterone. Participants completed a one-month health log to record URTI frequency. Early-pubertal girls were more physically active, had less adiposity, but lower concentrations of sIgA than late-pubertal adolescents (122.7 +/- 91.6 vs 201.9 +/- 102.9 pg/ml, respectively). The frequency of URTI was similar in the two groups. Neither sIgA nor URTI were correlated with salivary hormones, physical activity or adiposity within the early-pubertal girls. In the late-pubertal group, sIgA was negatively associated (r = -0.44; p
Blood-serum concentrations of antibodies to such viruses as herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus and Epstein--Barr virus have been assayed versus frequency of viral DNA detection in blood and saliva suspensions from patients with lung and stomach pre-cancers. Condition of local immunity of oral mucosa was assessed on the basis of saliva levels of secretory IgA and lysozyme. It was found that as local immunity of oral mucosa deteriorated, irrespective of pre-cancer localization, high titers of antiviral antibodies (class G) were established. The frequency of herpes DNA was much higher in lymphocytes and cellular sediment from saliva of patients with gastric pre-cancers. The role of herpes viruses in the pathogenesis of precancerous diseases and malignances is discussed.
To study HIV-associated risk behaviours among young offenders.
Juveniles aged 12 to 19 years entering correctional facilities in British Columbia volunteered in an unlinked anonymous study. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with high-risk sexual behaviours and injection drug use (IDU).
Despite low HIV prevalence (0.25%), patterns of risk behaviour were evident. IDU and homosexual/bisexual activity were equally prevalent among youth aged 12 to 15 and 16 to 19 years. For both age groups, IDU and female gender were significant predictors of sex for trade and sex with another drug user. Natives aged 12 to 15 years were five times more likely to inject drugs than non-Natives. However, predictors of IDU differed for older vs. younger youth.
Patterns of high-risk activity begin early and selective pressures may differ for younger vs. older young offenders. Youth in detention provide a window of opportunity for enhanced HIV/AIDS education.