This study was conducted to assess the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Russia and the adaptation of the population to the virus in March to June 2020. Two groups were investigated: 1) 12 082 individuals already proven positive for SARS-CoV-2 (clinical information was studied); 2) 7864+4458 individuals with suspected respiratory infections (polymerase chain reaction [PCR] tests and clinical information were studied). In the latter, SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals comprised 5.37% in March and 11.42% in June 2020. Several viral co-infections were observed for SARS-CoV-2. Rhinoviruses accounted for the largest proportion of co-infections (7.91% of samples were SARS-CoV-2-positive); followed by respiratory syncytial virus (7.03%); adenoviruses (4.84%); metapneumoviruses (3.29%); parainfluenza viruses (2.42%); enterovirus D68 (1.10%) and other viruses (entero-, echo-, parecho-) (
The causes, some pathogenetic mechanisms and possibilities for correcting the decrease in male reproductive potential in Russia are discussed in the lecture. Particular attention is paid to oxidative stress as one of the main causes for subfertility and male infertility, as well as the role of trace elements (zinc, selenium) and antioxidants (vitamins A, E and C) in the pathogenesis of male infertility and opportunities for the correction of fertility issues. Some aspects of COVID-19 influence on the problems of reproductive medicine, andrology and urology are highlighted.
First, to describe adolescents' health information sources and knowledge, health literacy (HL), health protective measures, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) during the initial phase of the Covid-19 pandemic in Norway. Second, to investigate the association between HL and the knowledge and behavior relevant for preventing spread of the virus. Third, to explore variables associated with HRQoL in a pandemic environment.
This cross-sectional study includes survey data from 2,205 Norwegian adolescents 16-19 years of age. The participants reported on their health information sources, HL, handwashing knowledge and behavior, number of social interactions, and HRQoL. Associations between study variables and specified outcomes were explored using multiple linear and logistic regression analyses.
Television (TV) and family were indicated to be the main sources for pandemic-related health information. Handwashing, physical distancing, and limiting the number of social contacts were the most frequently reported measures. HL and handwashing knowledge and HL and handwashing behavior were significantly associated. For each unit increase on the HL scale, the participants were 5% more likely to socialize less with friends in comparison to normal. The mean HRQoL was very poor compared to European norms. Being quarantined or isolated and having confirmed or suspected Covid-19 were significantly negatively associated with HRQoL, but seeing less friends than normal was not associated. HL was significantly positively associated with HRQoL, albeit of minor clinical importance.
Adolescents follow the health authorities' guidelines and appear highly literate. However, high fidelity requires great sacrifice because the required measures seem to collide with certain aspects that are important for the adolescents' HRQoL.
A large proportion of deaths worldwide have occurred among elderly living in nursing homes. Sweden is no exception with a comparable proportion making up around half of all deaths. The elderly, frail individuals living in nursing homes are among the most vulnerable and with the highest risk to die of covid-19. In spite of that we see almost two-thirds of the infected are still alive with a majority recovering fully after receiving treatment at the nursing home. Of 8?057 residents living in nursing homes in Stockholm, 1?464 (18?%) individuals have so far been diagnosed with covid-19 and 532 have died (6?% of all residents). Importantly, this means that a great majority of the residents are still alive including almost two-thirds (932/1?464) of the infected individuals.
Epidemiological data obtained during the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic suggests that COVID-19 mortality has specific age and gender associations. However, limited epidemiological studies explored specific populational risk factors, including comorbidities, and patient clinical characteristics. The main aim of our retrospective cohort study was to analyze associations between age, gender, and comorbidities in deceased COVID-19 patients.
A retrospective cohort analysis was performed to assess significant risk factors in adult patients deceased from COVID-19 infection by evaluating Electronic Medical Records and post-mortem analysis in COVID-19 patients deceased between April 2020 to October 2020. All patients underwent post-mortem evaluation along with medical history analysis, including data on disease duration, hospitalization, and clinical peculiarities.
Medical records of 1487 COVID-19 patients revealed that the prevalence of males was higher (by 23%) than females; the median age for males was 71?years of age whereas for females it was 78. The most prevalent comorbid pathologies were: hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and cancer. Males are at significantly increased risk of lethal outcome, even in younger age groups, with comorbid conditions.
The study concluded that comorbidities, such as hypertension, obesity, diabetes, cancer are the most important risk factors for comorbid mortality in COVID-19 patients. In addition to lung damage, multiple organ dysfunctions may be a crucial reason for COVID-19 induced death. Special precautions, such as early hospitalization, increased monitoring, and preventative tactics should be taken for at-risk patients.
We aimed to study the effect of social containment mandates on ACS presentation during COVID-19 pandemic using location activity and mobility data from mobile phone map services.
We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from the Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry (SCAAR) including all ACS presentations during the pandemic until 7 May 2020. Using a count regression model, we adjusted for day of the week, daily weather and incidence of COVID-19.
A 10% increase in activity around areas of residence was associated with 38% lower rates of ACS hospitalizations, whereas increased activity relating to retail and recreation, grocery stores and pharmacies, workplaces and mode of mobility was associated with 10-20% higher rates of ACS hospitalizations.
Government policy regarding social containment mandates has important public health implications for medical emergencies such as ACS and may explain the decline in ACS presentations observed during COVID-19 pandemic.
Worries about the immediate and long-term consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic may for some individuals develop into pervasive worry that is disproportionate in its intensity or duration and significantly interferes with everyday life.
The aim of this study was to investigate if a brief self-guided, online psychological intervention can reduce the degree of dysfunctional worry related to the COVID-19 pandemic and associated symptoms.
670 adults from the Swedish general population reporting daily uncontrollable worry about CO-VID-19 and its possible consequences (e.g., illness, death, the economy, one's family) were randomised (1:1 ratio) to a 3-week self-guided, online cognitive behavioural intervention targeting dysfunctional COVID-19 worry and associated symptoms, or a waiting list of equal duration. The primary outcome measure was a COVID-19 adapted version of the Generalised Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale administered at baseline and weeks 1-3 (primary endpoint). Follow-up assessments were conducted 1 month after treatment completion. The trial was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04341922) before inclusion of the first participant.
The main pre-specified intention-to-treat analysis indicated significant reductions in COVID-19-related worry for the intervention group compared to the waiting list (ß = 1.14, Z = 9.27, p
The World Health Organization and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control suggest that individuals over the age of 70 years or with underlying cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, or diabetes are at increased risk of severe COVID-19. However, the prevalence of these prognostic factors is unknown in many countries. We aimed to describe the burden and prevalence of prognostic factors of severe COVID-19 at national and county level in Sweden. We calculated the burden and prevalence of prognostic factors for severe COVID-19 based on records from the Swedish national health care and population registers for 3 years before 1st January 2016. 9,624,428 individuals were included in the study population. 22.1% had at least one prognostic factor for severe COVID-19 (2,131,319 individuals), and 1.6% had at least three factors (154,746 individuals). The prevalence of underlying medical conditions ranged from 0.8% with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (78,516 individuals) to 7.4% with cardiovascular disease (708,090 individuals), and the county specific prevalence of at least one prognostic factor ranged from 19.2% in Stockholm (416,988 individuals) to 25.9% in Kalmar (60,005 individuals). We show that one in five individuals in Sweden is at increased risk of severe COVID-19. When compared with the critical care capacity at a local and national level, these results can aid authorities in optimally planning healthcare resources during the current pandemic. Findings can also be applied to underlying assumptions of disease burden in modelling efforts to support COVID-19 planning.