Health effects as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant occurred in 1986 are considered in the paper. Wrong prognosis of the health effects with respect to mortality and morbidity among the population exposed to low radiation doses is shown. Proven increase in thyroid cancer cases among people who were children aged from 0 to 18 at the time of the accident is shown. Linear relationship between thyroid cancer cases and dose to thyroid ranged from 0.2 to 4.0 Gy is considered. An additional absolute risk of thyroid cancer in children varies in the range 1.9-2.6 cases per 10(4) person-year Gy. During the fifteen years following the accident no cases of acute and chronic radiation sickness have been revealed because the population living in contaminated areas received low radiation doses. Also, exposures to low radiation doses did not result in excess of malignant tumors among population. In some cases the outcomes of acute radiation sickness were as follows: radiation damages to the skin, cancer cataracts, development of oncopathology.
Beginning approximately 4 years after the Chernobyl nuclear accident a steady increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer was observed in children and adolescents of the Bryansk Oblast, which received the highest level of radionuclide contaminants in Russia. We examined the spatial relationship between the residence location of patients with identified thyroid cancer (0-18 years old at the time of the accident) and a number of geographic parameters to better account for the etiology of thyroid cancer spatial distribution. Geographic parameters analyzed included spatial distribution of 137Cs and 131I in soil, population demographics, measurements and reconstructions. of absorbed thyroid 131I doses in the population, and maps of major transportation arteries. An interesting finding is the lack of a consistent correlation between the spatial distribution of radionuclides in the soil and thyroid cancer incidence. Instead, most of the thyroid cancer cases were diagnosed in settlements situated on major railways and roads. Correlating population with thyroid cancer cases and transportation arteries reveals a much higher cancer rate on or near major roads and railways than at a distance from them, again independent of radionuclide soil concentration. There are other important factors, of course, that must be considered in future evaluations of this phenomenon. These include the influence of iodine endemic zones, genetic predisposition to thyroid cancer, and duration of residence time in contaminated areas. The feasibility of radionuclide transport on railways and roads is discussed, together with the vectors for transfer of the contaminants to the human population. Developing a model to reconstruct the radiation dose to the thyroid over time in this geographic region is proposed in light of the impact of transportation arteries. Specific studies are outlined to provide the data necessary to develop this model as well as to better characterize the feasibility and scientific validity of the contribution to human health effects of this transport factor. Transport factor refers to the transport of radionuclides on transportation arteries and the transfer of these agents to the human population residing in the vicinity of these arteries. If the impact on thyroid cancer of the transport of radionuclides on major railways and roads is indeed significant, a major reappraisal of the risk of large-scale radioactive release into the environment is necessary.
A significant progress in the management of controllable infections achieved by the early XXI century made it possible eliminate poliomyelitis across the nation, and practically eliminate measeles by vaccinating 96-99% of the children without raising the complication rate. The list of counterindications was shortened significantly, the Calendar of immunoprophylaxis was supplemented by inoculations against hepatitis B, rubella, flu, and type b Haemophilis influenzae infections. Morbidity of controllable infections in Russia decreased substantially compared with that in the 1990s. Nevertheless, the public health services are faced with the necessity of speedy application of new vaccines (including combined ones) allowing the inoculation impact on the child to be reduced. A rationale for the use of vaccines against pneumococcal and meningococcal infections, hepatitis A, varicella and for scaling up anti-pertussis vaccination coverage is proposed. Equally important is more extensive vaccination against papillomavirus infection as a means of cervical cancer prevention and introduction of the rotavirus vaccine to control most viral diarrheas.
This study aimed to assess whether adolescents have an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes (APO) compared to adult women. We used data on 43,327 births from the population-based Arkhangelsk County Birth Registry, Northwest Russia, for 2012-2014. The perinatal outcomes included stillbirth, preterm birth (
The comparative analysis of age-sex-related and social characteristics in patients with tuberculosis in the urban and rural areas of the Oryol Region over 2002-2003 demonstrated that in rural inhabitants, in children in particular, its incidence was about 1.5 times greater than that among urban ones. The highest incidence with tuberculosis was observed in the unemployed (50 times higher than the average regional value). Female incidence was higher in the rural area than in the urban one. In the terms of their social standing, identified patients with tuberculosis was 5 times more among the urban employees than among rural ones. The presented data suggest that tuberculosis-controlling efforts should be intensified in the rural area.
This study was designed to estimate the frequency of head injuries and selected manifestations of craniocerebral traumas in children and adolescents with a fatal combined blunt trauma. It is included 289 cases of death from a combined blunt trauma (101 original observations and data of 188 archival documents). The victims were categorized into 3 age groups. One group was comprised of cases from 0 to 3 years of life, group 2 included children aged from 4 to 11 years, and group 3 those at the age from 12 to 18 years. The age was shown to significantly influence both the frequency of head injuries and their severity. The maximum values of the two variables were recorded in the youngest age group. The frequency of head injuries and the number of selected manifestations of the craniocerebral trauma decreased with age.
The estimation of alcohol-related human losses in Russia in the 1980s and 1990s.
The estimation was made by comparing changes in the total number of deaths and in specific categories, and alcohol consumption in Russia during this time.
The anti-alcohol campaign, launched in 1985, and the market reforms launched in 1992 were associated with large and rapid changes of alcohol-consumption in Russia.
In the early 1980s, the aggregate number of direct and indirect alcohol-related life losses was more than 500,000 per annum, or 32% of total deaths. Half of the alcohol-related human losses in Russia over the period studied were due to accidents, poisoning and violence. Following the anti-alcohol campaign and reduction in annual per capita alcohol consumption from 14.2 (1984) to 10.5 l (1986), mortality decreased from 1161.6 to 1054.0 per 100,000 of the population. It is estimated that from 1986 to 1991 the lives of 1.22 million people were spared; that is, 11.4% of the number of deaths expected without the anti-alcohol campaign. All categories of deaths were reduced with the exception of neoplasms, infectious and parasitic diseases. In the period of the so-called market reforms both alcohol consumption and mortality increased sharply. The total number of alcohol-related deaths for 1994 was 751,000 in the population, or 33% of all deaths (direct and indirect losses). In 1995 alcohol consumption started to decrease. A decrease in mortality was registered despite the sharp deterioration of the quality of life in the country. However, a new growth of total mortality, fatal alcohol poisonings and number of alcohol psychoses began in 1999-2000.
The results of this study show the enormous scale of alcohol-related mortality in Russia. It has been revealed that alcohol-related deaths are at the top of the hierarchy of all premature deaths in the country. Decreasing alcohol consumption is an important means of decreasing total mortality in Russia.
The incidence of allergic diseases was studied in the children living in an oil-extracting region of the Republic of Udmurtia. A hygienic assessment of the level of environmental pollution was made in the study areas. The increased atmospheric contamination was ascertained to cause an increase in the incidence of allergic diseases in children. There was a correlation between the concentration of noxious substances as part of the ambient air and the prevalence of allergic diseases in children. The studies suggest that the children living in the oil-extracting area have worse parameters of nonspecific resistance than do the control children. The findings serve as the basis for developing measure to lower environmental pollution and to reduce the incidence of allergic diseases in children.