Two epidemiologically unrelated outbreaks of trichinellosis were registered in Rostov Province in the November and December of 1984 with 16 patients in the Salsk District and 20 patients in Rostov-on-Don. The course of the disease was characterized by 6-20% of severe and 31-45% moderate forms, respectively. The source of the infection was pork that had not been controlled for Trichinella spiralis. Late diagnosis and inadequate treatment in one case led to a fatal outcome. Economic losses accounted for 490,000 rubles (as of 1985). In spite of energetic prophylaxis measures, the situation in the Rostov Province continues to be serious. In 1989-1992, eighteen cases of trichinellosis were registered in the Salsk District again.
This section describes the spectrum and the scale of the nonmalignant diseases that have been found among exposed populations. Adverse effects as a result of Chernobyl irradiation have been found in every group that has been studied. Brain damage has been found in individuals directly exposed--liquidators and those living in the contaminated territories, as well as in their offspring. Premature cataracts; tooth and mouth abnormalities; and blood, lymphatic, heart, lung, gastrointestinal, urologic, bone, and skin diseases afflict and impair people, young and old alike. Endocrine dysfunction, particularly thyroid disease, is far more common than might be expected, with some 1,000 cases of thyroid dysfunction for every case of thyroid cancer, a marked increase after the catastrophe. There are genetic damage and birth defects especially in children of liquidators and in children born in areas with high levels of radioisotope contamination. Immunological abnormalities and increases in viral, bacterial, and parasitic diseases are rife among individuals in the heavily contaminated areas. For more than 20 years, overall morbidity has remained high in those exposed to the irradiation released by Chernobyl. One cannot give credence to the explanation that these numbers are due solely to socioeconomic factors. The negative health consequences of the catastrophe are amply documented in this chapter and concern millions of people.
Health effects as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant occurred in 1986 are considered in the paper. Wrong prognosis of the health effects with respect to mortality and morbidity among the population exposed to low radiation doses is shown. Proven increase in thyroid cancer cases among people who were children aged from 0 to 18 at the time of the accident is shown. Linear relationship between thyroid cancer cases and dose to thyroid ranged from 0.2 to 4.0 Gy is considered. An additional absolute risk of thyroid cancer in children varies in the range 1.9-2.6 cases per 10(4) person-year Gy. During the fifteen years following the accident no cases of acute and chronic radiation sickness have been revealed because the population living in contaminated areas received low radiation doses. Also, exposures to low radiation doses did not result in excess of malignant tumors among population. In some cases the outcomes of acute radiation sickness were as follows: radiation damages to the skin, cancer cataracts, development of oncopathology.
Significantly lower frequency of relapse, incidence of pulmonitis and pericarditis, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia stage IV and longer recurrence-free survival were reported after acceleration of multifractionation of STD of 1.35Gy was used for treatment of patients with primary Hodgkin's disease, as compared with standard fractionation. When STD was reduced to 1.2Gy (modified multifractionation), subtotal exposure of lymph nodes was followed by a significant drop in frequency and severity of leukopenia and thrombocytopenia stage III-IV. The latter complications, rates decreased further, with perspective response to therapy, as irradiation was limited to that of areas exposed during modified multifractionation.
Sverdlovsk Regional Occupational Center based on the Research Institute has highly qualified staff, incorporates ambulatory department, hospital with modern diagnostic and therapeutic equipment. The Center performs multiple tasks, being an organizational and methodic, diagnostic and occupational examination institution using up-to-date advances in industrial medicine.
A second homicide by a released mentally ill person is a potentially avoidable tragedy that can reduce the prospects of conditional release for other mentally ill offenders.
The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and criminological features of single and recidivist homicide offenders with schizophrenia from the Chuvash Republic of the Russian Federation.
Data were extracted from the criminal and clinical records of all people with schizophrenia who had been convicted of a homicide in the Chuvash Republic at any time between 1 January 1981 and 31 December 2010. Those convicted of a second homicide offence during the 30 years of the study were compared with those convicted of a single homicide.
Sixteen (10.7%) of 149 homicide offenders with schizophrenia had committed a previous homicide. The 16 recidivists included nine offenders who were diagnosed with schizophrenia at the time of their first homicide (after January 1981), three who were diagnosed with schizophrenia only after the first homicide and four who had already been diagnosed with schizophrenia at the time of a pre-1981 homicide. Time at risk for recidivists and non-recidivists differed, but the average time back in the community for the non-recidivists just exceeded the average time to second homicide for the recidivists. All the recidivists were men. Living in a rural area and dissocial personality traits were associated with homicide recidivism.
In the Chuvash republic, most of the repeat homicide offences by people with schizophrenia were committed by people residing in rural areas with less access to psychiatric services, which provides indirect evidence for the efficacy of ongoing treatment and supervision in preventing repeat homicides. This area of study is, however, limited by the small numbers of cases and the long follow-up required. International collaborative studies are indicated to provide a more accurate estimate of the rate of recidivist homicide in schizophrenia.
The -112G>A polymorphism of the secretoglobin 3A2 (SCGB3A2) gene encoding uteroglobin-related protein 1 (UGRP1) increases risk for the development of Graves' disease in subsets of patients with elevated levels of immunoglobulin E.
The human secretoglobin 3A2 (SCGB3A2) gene encoding secretory uteroglobin-related protein 1 (UGRP1) resides on the chromosome region 5q31-33 that harbors a susceptibility locus to several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, including asthma and Graves' disease (GD). Recently, association between the marker rs1368408 (-112G?>A), located in the promoter region of the SCGB3A2 gene, and susceptibility to GD was found in Chinese and UK Caucasians. The study aim was to evaluate whether this polymorphism confers GD susceptibility in a large population cohort comprising 1,474 Russian GD patients and 1,619 controls. The marker rs1368408 was studied using a TaqMan allele discrimination assay. Serum levels of UGRP1 and immunoglobulin E (IgE) were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analyses. Association between the allele A of SCGB3A2 and a higher risk of GD (odds ratio [OR] = 1.33, P = 2.9 × 10(-5)) was shown. Both affected and non-affected carriers of the higher risk genotype A/A had significantly decreased levels of serum UGRP1 compared to the subjects homozygous for G/G (93 ± 37 pg/ml vs. 132 ± 45 pg/ml, P = 0.0011 for GD patients; 77 ± 28 pg/ml vs. 119 ± 33 pg/ml, P = 0.0019 for controls). Serum IgE levels were significantly higher in non-affected subjects homozygous for A/A compared to control individuals homozygous for G/G (153 ± 46 IU/ml vs. 122 ± 40 IU/ml, P = 0.0095). Our data suggest that the carriage of the SCGB3A2 -112A/A variant increases the risk for GD in subsets of patients with elevated levels of IgE, a hallmark of allergic asthma. Therefore, the SCGB3A2 -112G?>A polymorphism may be considered as a likely marker linking susceptibility to allergy/asthma and GD on chromosome 5q31-33.