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Are the cause(s) responsible for urban-rural differences in schizophrenia risk rooted in families or in individuals?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature169423
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2006 Jun 1;163(11):971-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1-2006
Author
Carsten B Pedersen
Preben Bo Mortensen
Author Affiliation
National Centre for Register-based Research, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark. cbp@ncrr.dk
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2006 Jun 1;163(11):971-8
Date
Jun-1-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Birth Order
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Nuclear Family
Poisson Distribution
Registries
Risk factors
Rural Population - trends
Schizophrenia - epidemiology - etiology - genetics
Social Environment
Urban Population - trends
Abstract
Many studies have identified urban-rural differences in schizophrenia risk. Hypothetical underlying cause(s) may include toxic exposures, diet, infections, and selective migration. The authors investigated whether the underlying cause(s) responsible for the urban-rural differences were rooted in families or in individuals. Linking data from the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, a population-based cohort of 711,897 people aged 15 years or more was established. Overall, 2,720 persons developed schizophrenia during the period 1970-2001. The authors evaluated whether the nearest older sibling's place of birth had an independent effect on schizophrenia risk. If the cause(s) responsible for the urban-rural differences are rooted in individuals only, the nearest older sibling's place of birth should have no independent effect. In this analysis, the nearest older sibling's place of birth had an independent effect; among persons who lived in a rural area during their first 15 years of life, the relative risk was 1.59 (95% confidence interval: 1.10, 2.30) if their nearest older sibling had been born in the capital area as compared with a rural area. Some of the cause(s) responsible for the urban-rural differences in schizophrenia risk are rooted in families, but some might also be rooted in individuals.
Notes
Comment In: Am J Epidemiol. 2006 Jun 1;163(11):979-8116675534
PubMed ID
16675535 View in PubMed
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Epidemiological, social and psychiatric aspects in self-poisoned patients. A prospective comparative study from Trondheim, Norway between 1978 and 1987.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature12051
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 1991 Mar;26(2):53-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1991
Author
T. Rygnestad
L. Hauge
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway.
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 1991 Mar;26(2):53-62
Date
Mar-1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Comparative Study
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Overdose - mortality
Poisoning - mortality
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Rural Population - trends
Suicide - trends
Urban Population - trends
Abstract
A prospective study of an unselected group of patients admitted in a Medical Department in 1978 (n = 257) and 1987 (n = 361) after deliberate self-poisoning is presented. The rate increased significantly over the period of the study (P less than 0.05). Family problems, unemployment, poor social conditions and alcohol and drug abuse had increased. The main psychiatric diagnosis was neurosis. From 1978 to 1987 "abuse" had increased substantially. The 10-year mortality rate was 4.5 and 4.1 times the expected value for female and male patients, respectively. We conclude that social and psychiatric problems are increasing and that the treatment of these patients today is far from satisfactory.
PubMed ID
2047904 View in PubMed
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Factors influencing Internet usage in older adults (65 years and above) living in rural and urban Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature270898
Source
Health Informatics J. 2015 Sep;21(3):237-49
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2015
Author
Jessica Berner
Mikael Rennemark
Claes Jogréus
Peter Anderberg
Anders Sköldunger
Maria Wahlberg
Sölve Elmståhl
Johan Berglund
Source
Health Informatics J. 2015 Sep;21(3):237-49
Date
Sep-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Female
Humans
Internet - trends - utilization
Male
Rural Population - trends
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden - epidemiology
Urban Population - trends
Abstract
Older adults living in rural and urban areas have shown to distinguish themselves in technology adoption; a clearer profile of their Internet use is important in order to provide better technological and health-care solutions. Older adults' Internet use was investigated across large to midsize cities and rural Sweden. The sample consisted of 7181 older adults ranging from 59 to 100 years old. Internet use was investigated with age, education, gender, household economy, cognition, living alone/or with someone and rural/urban living. Logistic regression was used. Those living in rural areas used the Internet less than their urban counterparts. Being younger and higher educated influenced Internet use; for older urban adults, these factors as well as living with someone and having good cognitive functioning were influential. Solutions are needed to avoid the exclusion of some older adults by a society that is today being shaped by the Internet.
PubMed ID
24567416 View in PubMed
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Higher education and more physical activity limit the development of obesity in a Swedish rural population. The Skaraborg Project.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature93727
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2008 Mar;32(3):533-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2008
Author
Nyholm M.
Gullberg B.
Haglund B.
Råstam L.
Lindblad U.
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2008 Mar;32(3):533-40
Date
Mar-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Body mass index
Cross-Sectional Studies
Educational Status
Exercise
Female
Humans
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - epidemiology
Odds Ratio
Prevalence
Rural Health - trends
Rural Population - trends
Smoking - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and the secular trends of obesity in a rural Swedish community with emphasis on the association with socioeconomic status and lifestyle. DESIGN: The Skaraborg Project cross-sectional population surveys were conducted in Vara, a rural community in the southwest of Sweden, every fifth year between 1977 and 2002. SUBJECTS: A total of 3365 residents (1634 men and 1731 women) aged 30-60 years. MEASUREMENTS: Obesity was defined as body mass index> or =30 kg m(-2). Information on ethnicity, marital status, socioeconomic status and lifestyle was collected by a questionnaire. RESULTS: In 1977-1982, the average prevalence of obesity was 14% in both men and women, and in 2002, the prevalence of obesity was 19% in men and 21% in women. The age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of obesity in 2002 was 1.48 (1.00, 2.20) in men and 1.41 (0.97, 2.05) in women. Without the simultaneous increase in the level of education and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), the risk of developing obesity could have been considerably higher; in men OR=3.08 (1.88, 5.03) and in women OR=2.72 (1.66, 4.44). In multivariate models, higher levels of education and LTPA were associated with protective effects on obesity in both men (OR=0.60 (0.43, 0.83) and OR=0.50 (0.45, 0.79)) and women (OR=0.73 (0.54, 0.98) and OR=0.57 (0.42, 0.78)), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed an upward secular trend in the prevalence of obesity in a rural community in Sweden. Increasing levels of education and LTPA limit this ongoing development of obesity. Public health strategies for the prevention of obesity should consider the special condition in rural environments.
PubMed ID
18209739 View in PubMed
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Impact of residence on prevalence and intensity of prescription drug use among older adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature167104
Source
Ann Pharmacother. 2006 Nov;40(11):1932-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2006
Author
Anita G Carrie
Ruby E Grymonpre
Audrey A Blandford
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. acarrie@pharmacy.ualberta.ca
Source
Ann Pharmacother. 2006 Nov;40(11):1932-8
Date
Nov-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Drug Prescriptions
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Health Status Indicators
Humans
Male
Manitoba
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Prevalence
Rural Population - trends
Urban Population - trends
Abstract
Higher levels of morbidity among older adults result in greater need for pharmaceutical products and pharmacy services compared with the need in the general population. Rural residents reportedly have reduced access to healthcare services secondary to transportation difficulties, a limited supply of healthcare workers and facilities, and financial constraints.
To examine differences in the prevalence and intensity of prescription pharmaceutical use among urban and rural older adults in Manitoba, Canada.
Participant data from the 1996/1997 Manitoba Study of Health and Aging were linked to pharmaceutical claims data recorded in Manitoba Health's Drug Program Information Network. The effect of residence on the prevalence and intensity of drug use was determined, in addition to the effects of other sociodemographic characteristics, measures of health, and health service utilization.
The prevalence of prescription pharmaceutical use did not differ between urban and rural residents (90.6% vs 89.5%, respectively; p = 0.60). Users of home-care services (OR 1.93; 95% CI 1.09 to 3.39), those who perceived their income as adequate (2.38; 95% CI 1.09 to 5.17), and those with a higher number of chronic health problems (1.42; 95% CI 1.26 to 1.62) were significantly more likely to access prescription medications. Rural and urban residents were equally likely to be high users of prescription drugs (21.3% vs 20.0%, respectively; p = 0.64).
Poor health status is associated with a higher prevalence and intensity of use of prescription drugs among older Manitobans. Rural residence is not a barrier to receipt of prescription pharmaceuticals.
PubMed ID
17032906 View in PubMed
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Invited commentary: taking the search for causes of schizophrenia to a different level.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature169424
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2006 Jun 1;163(11):979-81
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1-2006
Author
Dana March
Ezra Susser
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology, Joseph L. Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2006 Jun 1;163(11):979-81
Date
Jun-1-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Birth Order
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Nuclear Family
Registries
Risk factors
Rural Population - trends
Schizophrenia - epidemiology - etiology - genetics
Social Environment
Urban Population - trends
Abstract
In recent years, epidemiologists have established major variations in the incidence of schizophrenia and have begun to investigate the causes of these variations. The report by Pedersen and Mortensen (Am J Epidemiol 2006;163:971-8) in this issue of the Journal examines the contribution of family-level factors to the urban-rural difference in the incidence of schizophrenia. Their results suggest that familial life in urban environments confers some effect that persists after families move to rural settings. Taking these findings together with those of previous studies, it appears that factors operating at the level of the social context, the family, and the individual may all contribute to the urban-rural difference in schizophrenia incidence. This work exemplifies an integrative, multilevel approach to epidemiologic research that employs principles central to eco-epidemiology and other, similar frameworks.
Notes
Comment On: Am J Epidemiol. 2006 Jun 1;163(11):971-816675535
PubMed ID
16675534 View in PubMed
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[Medical demographic trends in the Volga region during recent decade].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature189834
Source
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med. 2002 Mar-Apr;(2):13-5
Publication Type
Article
Author
A S Iaroslavtsev
Source
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med. 2002 Mar-Apr;(2):13-5
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Birth rate
Catchment Area (Health)
Ethnic Groups - statistics & numerical data
Health status
Humans
Population Surveillance
Rural Population - trends
Russia
Socioeconomic Factors
Urban Population - trends
Abstract
Time course of demographic processes in the Volga region has been studied. The unfavorable demographic situation manifests by decreased number of children and increased number of subjects of incapable age, decreased birth rate, increased mortality, formation of the negative natural increment. Decreased number of children and increased number of retired subjects aggravates the demographic loading of the capable population. This inevitably leads to negative economic demographic consequences.
PubMed ID
12055919 View in PubMed
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No evidence of time trends in the urban-rural differences in schizophrenia risk among five million people born in Denmark from 1910 to 1986.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature83083
Source
Psychol Med. 2006 Feb;36(2):211-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2006
Author
Pedersen Carsten Bøcker
Author Affiliation
National Center for Register-based Research, University of Aarhus, Aarhus C, Denmark. cbp@ncrr.dk
Source
Psychol Med. 2006 Feb;36(2):211-9
Date
Feb-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Birth Certificates
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Registries
Risk factors
Rural Population - trends
Schizophrenia - epidemiology
Time Factors
Urban Population - trends
Abstract
BACKGROUND: There have been conflicting reports on time trends in urban-rural differences in the incidence of schizophrenia. This study explored the potential time trends in these differences with regard to birth cohort and age at onset. METHOD: Linking data from the Danish Civil Registration system with data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, a cohort born in Denmark from 1910 to 1986 was established (5.05 million people). Overall, 23051 people were classified with schizophrenia in 1970-2001. RESULTS: Urban-rural differences in schizophrenia risk may have existed for people born in Denmark since 1910, and have existed at a constant level for people born from 1945 to 1986. Males aged or=20 years had a risk of 2.12 (1.98-2.27). Females or=20 years had a risk of 1.90 (95% CI 1.74-2.08). At age 46, 1.84% (95% CI 1.76-1.93) of males and 1.05% (95% CI 0.99-1.12) of females born in the capital area had developed schizophrenia, while 0.81% (95% CI 0.75-0.86) of males and 0.56% (95% CI 0.51-0.60) of females born in the rural area had developed schizophrenia. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence of time trends in the urban-rural differences in the incidence of schizophrenia in Denmark, suggesting that the cause(s) responsible for these differences were not related to exposures that became more prevalent in urban areas over time. This finding is in contrast to findings from Finland and The Netherlands.
PubMed ID
16303060 View in PubMed
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A pilot study of the impact of bovine spongiform encephalopathy on the futures of rural youth and Canadian farming.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature138019
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2011;74(2-4):248-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Trevor M Cook
Ryan K Brook
Madhu Sindhwani
Wilfreda E Thurston
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2011;74(2-4):248-60
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Agriculture - economics - statistics & numerical data
Animal Husbandry - economics - statistics & numerical data - trends
Animals
Canada - epidemiology
Cattle
Encephalopathy, Bovine Spongiform - economics - epidemiology - prevention & control
Family - psychology
Female
Forecasting
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Male
Pilot Projects
Rural Health - statistics & numerical data - trends
Rural Population - trends
Young Adult
Abstract
There is an abundance of literature examining the economic impact of Canada's bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) outbreak, but few studies examined the impact of such a crisis on health at the individual, family, or community levels. In particular, rural youth represent an under-researched population despite being at risk for a unique set of social and health concerns. In this pilot study, our objectives were to explore how rural youth responded to Canada's BSE crisis and how they perceived themselves, their families, and their communities to have been impacted. Seven youths (n = 7), recruited from within a university setting using a snowball sampling method, were interviewed. They represent a segment of rural, agriculturally based youth who are resilient due to good parental support. Although they reported high stress in their families during the immediate crisis in 2003, they did not report lasting high levels of stress or negative health effects due to BSE. They did report a decline in rural community health, identifying a reduction in community activities and in the participation of families in community activities. Participants identified elements that discourage youth from pursuing farming as a career and expressed concern for the future of family farming. The results are discussed in terms of the ability of agriculturally based youth to make the transition to adulthood. The implications have importance for future research and policy that addresses the structural supports for choice making, the long-term success for rural youth in transitioning to adult status, and the future of agriculture.
PubMed ID
21218350 View in PubMed
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A population-based study of the epidemiology of hepatitis C in a North American population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123771
Source
J Hepatol. 2012 Oct;57(4):736-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2012
Author
Julia Uhanova
Robert B Tate
Douglas J Tataryn
Gerald Y Minuk
Author Affiliation
Section of Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. uhanovaj@cc.umanitoba.ca
Source
J Hepatol. 2012 Oct;57(4):736-42
Date
Oct-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Hepatitis C - epidemiology
Hepatitis C, Chronic - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Male
Manitoba - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Registries - statistics & numerical data
Rural Population - trends
Sex Distribution
Urban Population - trends
Young Adult
Abstract
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health problem with approximately 3% of the world's population thought to be chronically infected. However, population-based data regarding HCV incidence rates, prevalence, residence, age, and gender distributions within North America are limited. We aimed at providing a detailed descriptive epidemiology of HCV infection in a North American population with a focus on time trends in incidence rates and prevalence of newly diagnosed HCV infection since 1991, the time when laboratory testing for HCV infections became first available.
A Research Database was developed linking records from multiple administrative sources. HCV positive residents of the Canadian province of Manitoba were identified during a twelve-year period (1991-2002). The cumulative and annual incidence rates and the prevalence of newly diagnosed HCV infection in Manitoba were examined and compared between different demographic groups and urban vs. rural residents.
A total of 5018 HCV positive cases were identified over a 12-year period. The annual number of newly diagnosed HCV infections peaked in 1998 (59.2/100,000). On the other hand, the known prevalence of HCV continued to increase (4.6-fold during the 12-year study period) among both men and women reflecting the chronic nature of the disease. Males were 1.7 times more often infected than females. HCV infections were more common in urban centers.
Between 1995 and 2002, there was a fairly constant trend for newly diagnosed HCV infection, ranging from approximately 500 to 600 new cases annually. Hence, with a stable population size, and a low case fatality rate, the prevalence of HCV infected persons in our population has been steadily rising. There is no evidence to suggest that the incidence of HCV infection will raise, however, the burden of chronic HCV infection will continue to increase, particularly amongst older males and those residing in urban centers.
PubMed ID
22668641 View in PubMed
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17 records – page 1 of 2.