To evaluate and compare the preferences and attitudes of Ontario ophthalmologists and ophthalmology residents toward screencasting as an educational tool with potential use for continuing medical education (CME) events.
Eighty of 256 participants completed the survey.
The surveys were sent to participants by email, with follow-up via telephone. Study participants were urban and rural Ontario ophthalmologists, registered with the Canadian Ophthalmological Society, and University of Toronto ophthalmology residents. Pre-recorded online presentations-screencasts-were used as the main intervention. Online surveys were used to measure multiple variables evaluating the attitudes of the participants toward screencasting. This data was then used for further quantitative and qualitative analysis.
Over 95% of participants replied favourably to the introduction and future utilization of screencasting for educational purposes. Rural ophthalmologists were the most enthusiastic about future events. Practising in rural Ontario was associated with a higher interest in live broadcasts than practising in urban centres (p
The epidemiological study of a focus of Brucella infection revealed that an outbreak of brucellosis occurred in a small town, and the source of this infection was a domestic cat. As the result of contacts with this cat, six persons, among them three children aged 3, 8 and 12 years, had brucellosis. In all these patients acute brucellosis was diagnosed. Simultaneously with the clinical manifestations of the disease, a rise in antibody titer from 1:50 to 1:1,600 was observed. Brucella cultures isolated from the blood of one of the patients and from the internal organs of the cat exhibited the properties, similar to those of "rodent" strains, i. e. their differential signs permit their classification with B. suis, serovar 5.
Canada is the second largest landmass country in the world, but has one of the lowest population densities. As of 2011, approximately 19% of the Canadian population lives in rural, or remote communities. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in rural and urban access to the Internet and device use in Canada, and to explore differences in access to broadband between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal communities in Canada. In general rural-dwellers had lower levels of Internet access and despite efforts to increase access to high speed Internet, Aboriginal communities in some regions have limited access. Future research should explore computer and health literacy in the context of rural and remote communities in Canada.
Independence and having control over one's own life are important factors for residential satisfaction. In rural areas, the mobility of people is based on owning a private car, due to the lack of public transport. Furthermore, planning in rural municipalities is highly car oriented. Small municipalities with shrinking and aging populations have many challenges to ensure access to services for their residents. This paper focuses on a case study of a small municipality with less than 2000 inhabitants. The objective of the study was to enhance sustainable change in shrinking rural areas and maintain them as good places to live even in the future. Access to local services and social activities is a major challenge for older people, who no longer have the possibility to use their own car. The problem with relocation is the lack of suitable apartments for older people. A dense and walkable municipal centre with accessible apartments may help municipalities provide for their older populations. Moreover, in Finland, second homeowners are an important resource for small municipalities. Spaces for social intercourse between residents and between permanent residents and second homeowners may enhance vitality and community building in these municipalities.
Trauma is a leading cause of morbidity, potential years of life lost and health care expenditure in Canada and around the world. Trauma systems have been established across North America to provide comprehensive injury care and to lead injury control efforts. We sought to describe the current status of trauma systems in Canada and Canadians' access to acute, multidisciplinary trauma care.
A national survey was used to identify the locations and capabilities of adult trauma centers across Canada and to identify the catchment populations they serve. Geographic information science methods were used to map the locations of Level I and Level II trauma centers and to define 1-hour road travel times around each trauma center. Data from the 2006 Canadian Census were used to estimate populations within and outside 1-hour access to definitive trauma care.
In Canada, 32 Level I and Level II trauma centers provide definitive trauma care and coordinate the efforts of their surrounding trauma systems. Most Canadians (77.5%) reside within 1-hour road travel catchments of Level I or Level II centers. However, marked geographic disparities in access persist. Of the 22.5% of Canadians who live more than an hour away from a Level I or Level II trauma centers, all are in rural and remote regions.
Access to high quality acute trauma care is well established across parts of Canada but a clear urban/rural divide persists. Regional efforts to improve short- and long-term outcomes after severe trauma should focus on the optimization of access to pre-hospital care and acute trauma care in rural communities using locally relevant strategies or novel care delivery options.
Walking or cycling to school represents an opportunity for children to engage in physical activity. The study objectives were to: 1) describe active transportation policies, programs, and built environments of Canadian schools and their surrounding neighbourhoods, and 2) document variations based on urban-rural location and school type (primary vs. secondary vs. mixed primary/secondary schools).
397 schools from across Canada were studied. A school administrator completed a questionnaire and responses were used to assess schools' policies and programs related to active transportation and the safety and aesthetics of their respective neighbourhoods. Built environment features in a 1 km-radius circular buffer around each school were measured using geographic information systems.
Greater than 70% of schools had passive policies (e.g., skateboards permitted on school grounds) and facilities (e.g., bicycle racks in secure area to avoid theft) to encourage bicycle and small-wheeled vehicle use. Less than 40% of schools had active programs designed to encourage active transportation, such as organized 'walk to school' days. Garbage in the streets, crime and substance abuse were barriers in most school neighbourhoods. Approximately 42% of schools were located on high-speed roads not amenable to active transportation and 14% did not have a sidewalk leading to the school. Secondary schools had less favourable active transportation policies/programs and neighbourhood safety/aesthetics compared to primary schools. Rural schools had less favourable built environments than urban schools.
Canadian children, particularly those from rural areas, face a number of impediments to active transportation as a method of travelling to school.
The majority of the population is inactive, and strategies to date for promoting regular physical activity have been limited in their effectiveness. Further research is needed to identify correlates of physical activity in different subgroups to design more efficacious interventions. This study sought to identify correlates of physical activity across men and women, urban and rural geographical locations, and four distinct age groups (18-25; 26-45; 46-59; and 60+).
This study employed data from a large provincial household random sample (N = 20,606) of Canadians. Analyses were utilized to examine the amount of variance explained in self-reported physical activity by a number of demographic and/or biological, psychological, behavioral, social, and environmental variables within each subgroup.
Proportion of friends who exercise, injury from past physical activity, educational level, perceived health status, and alcohol consumption were among the strongest correlates across subgroups.
A number of correlates were identified as being significant across all subgroups examined. Most differences in the correlates of physical activity were found within different age groups rather than among urban and rural residents and gender.
Hereditary factors of arterial hypertension were evaluated genetically and epidemiologically in the study of an isolated population of Dagestan with high inbreeding. High prevalence of arterial hypertension was found. Its highest morbidity was found in native population of Tukhums characterized also by the highest inbreeding.