The comprehensive analysis of population health of Moscow Oblast in the dynamic of the last 10 years together with the conditioning factors proves that the inhabitants' health and conditions of their living are closely related with the medical social and economic regional issues. The changing political and economic situation, migration and criminality threatening increase result in decrease of expected life duration and in mortality and disability increase.
The tasks of decreasing of mortality due to main causes require informational analytical support for effective decision making. The profiles of monthly mortality of women because of diseases of blood circular system vary in administrative territorial agglomerations with different social economical level. The monitoring of indicators of mortality permits selecting months of risk and to implement preventive, rehabilitation activities to decrease mortality.
Trauma is a leading cause of morbidity, potential years of life lost and health care expenditure in Canada and around the world. Trauma systems have been established across North America to provide comprehensive injury care and to lead injury control efforts. We sought to describe the current status of trauma systems in Canada and Canadians' access to acute, multidisciplinary trauma care.
A national survey was used to identify the locations and capabilities of adult trauma centers across Canada and to identify the catchment populations they serve. Geographic information science methods were used to map the locations of Level I and Level II trauma centers and to define 1-hour road travel times around each trauma center. Data from the 2006 Canadian Census were used to estimate populations within and outside 1-hour access to definitive trauma care.
In Canada, 32 Level I and Level II trauma centers provide definitive trauma care and coordinate the efforts of their surrounding trauma systems. Most Canadians (77.5%) reside within 1-hour road travel catchments of Level I or Level II centers. However, marked geographic disparities in access persist. Of the 22.5% of Canadians who live more than an hour away from a Level I or Level II trauma centers, all are in rural and remote regions.
Access to high quality acute trauma care is well established across parts of Canada but a clear urban/rural divide persists. Regional efforts to improve short- and long-term outcomes after severe trauma should focus on the optimization of access to pre-hospital care and acute trauma care in rural communities using locally relevant strategies or novel care delivery options.
With the aim of developing standards and conducting comparative analysis of the level of puberty in rural schoolchildren of Nizhniy Novgorod region, with regard to the temporal and territorial factors, 2411 individuals of both sexes aged 11-17 years were examined. During medical examinations, that were conducted in 2011-2013, the development of secondary sexual characteristics was characterized. The results obtained were compared with those received in 1967-1968 surveys and in the studied of modern children and teenagers living in the city of Nizhniy Novgorod. It was found that the level of puberty in rural schoolchildren has grown statistically significantly over the past 45 years. The appearance of secondary sexual characteristics in boys was accelerated by 2-3 years. In girls, the shift of 1-2 years was observed, while the sequence of their development remained unchanged, and in boys it was accompanied by the delayed growth of the thyroid cartilage. Among rural and urban boys, the differences in the level of puberty was less pronounced than among the girls. By the rate of passage of puberty transformations, rural girls lag behind their urban peers for 1 year. Modern rural students of Nizhny Novgorod region are characterized by higher variability of the manifestation of secondary sexual characteristics and their expression than in other regions of the country, especially among boys.
Decreasing physical activity levels, particularly among youth, continue to be a prominent health concern in Canada, and youth living in rural areas may encounter unique facilitators and barriers to physical activity. In addition, current research suggests that overweight and obesity rates are higher for youth in some rural areas compared with urban areas. The goal of this study was to identify the perceived facilitators and barriers to physical activity for a selected sample of rural youth at a rural secondary school in south-western Ontario and examine how rural barriers and facilitators affect rural youth physical activity. Current Canadian literature addresses rural youth physical activity in a very limited fashion. Thus, the goal of this research was to provide important insights into physical activity for rural youth.
Nine participants aged 13 to 18 years completed the study using the photovoice methodology and method. Photovoice is a relatively new method for health research that adopts an innovative approach whereby participants use cameras to document their perceived health realities. In photovoice the images and words from the life experiences of participants create the basis for discussion. Participants had 2 weeks to take photographs. After 2 weeks the cameras and logbooks were retrieved, the photographs were developed, and a one-on-one interview was held with each participant. The interviews focused on participants' explanations of their photographs and their relevance to physical activity.
Analysis of the pictorial, narrative, and logbook data provided by participants revealed 12 themes as facilitators and barriers to physical activity. Some of the themes relate to facilitators (eg early exposure to activities), some to barriers (eg lack of opportunities close to home), and some themes represent both a facilitator and a barrier (eg competitiveness, family support, and peer interests). The findings of this study may assist community stakeholders, school officials, and parents to better support the physical activity needs of rural youth.
Physical activity rates continue to decline and to be a major health concern for Canadian youth. Thus, it is becoming increasingly important to understand physical activity from the perspective of rural youth. Implications of this information for rural communities, rural schools, and rural residents are significant. These implications and recommendations may help facilitate increased participation in physical activity for rural youth by providing them, and their families and communities, with enhanced opportunities and resources to engage in physical activity. Further research is clearly indicated.
An epidemiological study was made on special features of prevalence of disorders of the endocrine system among the rural population over the period 1992-1996 based upon 8 regions of Ukraine. The role has been ascertained of ecological factors in modification of contingent prevalence of endocrine diseases. A hypothesis has been framed that there is the "exposure-->effect" type relationship between abnormal levels of radiation contamination and risk for origination of disorders of the endocrine system and increase in endocrine morbidity.
The purpose of this study was to explore and compare measures of socioeconomic status (SES) in a national sample of Canadian adolescents. Issues of missing data and interrelationships among the measures were addressed. Measures of SES included household income, parental education, two parental occupation-based measures, and four neighbourhood proxy indicators. The proportion of adolescents with missing data was largest for household income (21.1 percent). Data were not missing at random, as adolescents missing household income information were less likely to reside in a high income neighbourhood. Pair-wise Spearman correlations ranged from: 0.40-0.79 between neighbourhood SES measures; 0.12-0.37 between household/parental and neighbourhood indicators; and 0.36-0.87 between household/parental measures. Correlations were lower among rural adolescents, particularly for the neighbourhood SES measures. The results highlight both measurement and conceptual challenges for researchers who wish to gain insight into SES-health relationships for adolescents. In particular, the findings emphasize the importance of incorporating multiple measures of SES and suggest a need to further explore the meaning of socioeconomic position for this population.