The treatment-mix, treatment time, and dental status of 268 male industrial workers entitled to employer-provided dental care were studied. The data were collected from treatment records of the covered workers over the 5-year period 1989-93. Treatment time was based on clinical treatment time recorded per patient visit, and the treatment procedure codes were reclassified into a treatment-mix according to American Dental Association categories, with a modification combining endodontics and restorative treatment. The mean number of check-ups followed by prescribed treatment (treatment courses) during the 5 years was 3.7 among those who had entered the in-house dental care program prior to the monitored period (old attenders). Their treatment time was stable, 57-63 min per year, while the first-year mean treatment time (170 min) of those who had entered the program during the study period (new attenders) was significantly higher (P
A dental examination was included in a mainly medically oriented population study of women in Gothenburg, Sweden. From panoramic radiographs the numbers of remaining teeth, restored teeth (fillings and crowns), pontics, and endodontically treated teeth were assessed in 1968-69 and in a 12-yr follow-up study in 1980-81. Women aged 38, 46, 50, 54 and 60 yr were initially studied. In the follow-up study, a group of 38-yr-old women was added. A comparison between cross-sectional data in 1968-69 and in 1980-81 in women aged 38 and 50 yr showed some marked differences. Dentulous women of the same age had in 1980-81 a larger mean number of teeth and a larger number of restored teeth (including crowns). The number of restored teeth in relation to remaining teeth was the same in the 38-yr-old women in 1980-81 but had increased in the 50-yr-olds. The absolute and relative numbers (in relation to remaining teeth) of crowns (also studied separately), pontics, and endodontically treated teeth were about the same in 1968-69 and 1980-81 both for the 38-yr-olds and the 50-yr-olds. There was a slight but statistically significant increase only in the absolute number of crowns for the 50-yr-olds. The follow-up study showed a moderate decrease of remaining teeth in all age groups. Related to remaining teeth, the number of restored teeth (including crowns), crowns, pontics, and endodontically treated teeth showed a statistically significant increase for all age groups except for the oldest, in which group a significant increase was only observed for crowns.
The objective was to perform a long-term follow-up study of patients that had received high cost dental care within the Swedish National Dental Insurance System in 1977-1978 with special focus on remaining teeth, periodontal disease progression, change in the prevalence of root-filled teeth and teeth with apical periodontitis as well as the survival of fixed prosthetic reconstructions. All 262 patients who had had their treatment plans sent for approval for high-cost dental care in 4 local health insurance districts and who were sampled for base-line studies in 1977-1978, were offered a free clinical examination including radiographs in 1998. 177 patients (68 % of the original sample) could be reached for telephone interview and 104 of them (40 % of the original sample) were examined clinically and radiographically. Comparisons were made with records and radiographs from 1977-1978. The analyses were performed with the individual patient as the studied unit. The low progression of severe periodontal disease during the 20-23 year follow-up period and the decrease in number of teeth with apical periodontitis among a majority of the patients examined, indicated that the dental care received resulted in a limitation of dental disease on the individual level. Furthermore 63 % of the patients had the fixed prosthetic reconstructions, received after approval 1977-1978, in full extention after 20-23 years. However, more tooth losses were observed among the patients in this study than in similar studies in Swedish general populations over the same decades. Furthermore multiple tooth extractions were significantly more frequent in patients with severe periodontitis at baseline and in patients with less apical periodontitis at follow-up in this study. Thus it seems that tooth extraction not seldom was a treatment choice for teeth with severe periodontitis and apical periodontitis among the patients examined clinically in this study.
AIM: To re-examine a population after 20 years and evaluate changes in prevalence of endodontic treatment and apical periodontitis, as well as the technical quality of root fillings. METHODOLOGY: One hundred and fifteen out of an original 200 patients living in the northern part of Sweden were re-examined with a full mouth radiographic survey after 20 years. Frequencies of root canal treated teeth, apical periodontitis and quality parameters of root fillings were registered. RESULTS: The frequency of root canal treated teeth increased significantly (P
This molecular study analyzed the microbiota of primary root canal infections from adult Norwegian patients.
Samples were taken from the necrotic root canals of teeth with symptomatic (n = 13) or asymptomatic (n = 21) apical periodontitis and chronic apical abscesses (n = 9). DNA was extracted from samples, and bacterial identifications were performed by a closed-ended reverse-capture checkerboard approach targeting 50 candidate endodontic pathogens.
Bacterial DNA was detected in all cases. In teeth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis, the most frequent taxa were Dialister invisus (71%), Fusobacterium nucleatum (62%), and Porphyromonas endodontalis (62%). In chronic apical abscesses, the most prevalent taxa were P. endodontalis (100%), D. invisus (89%), Parvimonas micra (78%), and Solobacterium moorei (78%). In teeth with symptomatic apical periodontitis, the most prevalent taxa were D. invisus, P. endodontalis, S. moorei, Propionibacterium acnes, and Streptococcus species (all in 69%). None of the targeted taxa were significantly associated with either sinus tract or pain (P > .05), except for Selenomonas sputigena, which was more frequently found in painful cases (P = .04). No taxa were found in significantly higher levels in any conditions (P > .05). Cluster analyses revealed bacterial groupings that differed between cases with and without pain.
Although basically the same species were highly prevalent in the different conditions examined and none of the most prevalent taxa were positively associated with symptoms, results revealed that species formed different partnerships and associations in samples from teeth with or without pain. Therefore, it is possible that more virulent multispecies communities can form as a result of overall bacterial combinations and give rise to acute inflammation.
The aim of this study was to estimate dental treatment need in groups of Chilean and Polish refugees in Sweden. Of the Nordic countries, Sweden accepts the greatest number of refugees. An average of 5000 refugees arrived annually in 1981-85, increasing to 15,000 during 1986-87. Refugees and their families now comprise 93% of non-Nordic immigration. In 1981-83 a sample of 193 Chilean and 92 Polish refugees in the county of Stockholm was selected for this study. Dental treatment needs were calculated in accordance with CPITN and the working study of Swedish dentistry, which formed the basis for the Swedish scale of dental fees for the National Dental Insurance Scheme. The estimated mean treatment time (+/- SD) in the Chilean sample was 6.9 +/- 2.3 h and in the Polish group 8.4 +/- 3.0; in comparison with estimated treatment needs in a Swedish material, both would be classified as extreme risk groups. There was no correlation between the number of months in Sweden and the estimated treatment needs. The results indicate a cumulative, unmet need for dental care in these groups. Barriers to ensuring adequate health care for immigrants persist; special outreach programmes, conducted by dental health personnel, may be an effective means of introducing immigrants to the Swedish dental care system.
AIM: To investigate a hypothesized long-time decrease of endodontic treatment in a population with low caries prevalence. METHODOLOGY: A Danish nationwide database including almost all dental diagnostic, prophylactic and therapeutic procedures performed in Danish adults was available. Data on the annual frequencies of root fillings, extractions, pulpotomies, direct pulp cappings and stepwise excavations between 1977 and 2003 were analysed. Data on pulpal and periapical diagnoses were not available and on patients age and gender only from 1996. RESULTS: Between 1977 and 2003 the annual number of root filled canals increased from 268,223 to 364,867 (36%). The annual number of root filled teeth increased from 160,119 to 191,803 (20%). During the period, the annually registered patients increased by 16%. Calculated per 1000 patients, the number of root fillings showed a statistically significant increase of 17%. In root filled teeth the canal/tooth ratio increased from 1.67 to 1.96. Root fillings were frequently recorded in all age groups with the bulk of treatments performed on patients between 40 and 60 years of age. At a total population level, the rate of root fillings decreased among younger individuals and increased among older. The annual number of tooth extractions was more than halved from 656,624 in 1977 to 346,490 in 2003. Pulpotomies decreased markedly over the period and less than 10 treatments per 1000 patients were noted for pulp capping as well as stepwise excavation procedures. CONCLUSIONS: The present study failed to show a long-time decrease of endodontic treatment in a population with low caries prevalence. On the contrary, an increase of root filled canals was observed between 1977 and 2003, which was probably due to a reduction of the tooth extraction rate and an increased treatment of multi-rooted teeth.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the strategies that general dental practitioners (GDPs) use to administer antibiotic prophylaxis and to study the agreement between the administration strategies of GDPs and local recommendations. METHODS: Postal questionnaires in combination with telephone interviews were used. Two hundred GDPs in two Swedish counties, Skåne and Orebro, were asked to participate. The response rate was 51% (n = 101). The GDPs were presented with eight simulated cases of patients with different medical conditions for which antibiotic prophylaxis might be considered necessary when performing dental procedures (scaling, tooth removal, root canal treatment). The administration strategies of the GDPs were compared with local recommendations. RESULTS: In general, the variation in the administration strategies of the GDPs was large. For two medical conditions, type 1 diabetes that was not well controlled and hip prosthesis, significantly more GDPs in Skåne than in Orebro administered antibiotic prophylaxis for tooth removal. Agreement between the administration strategies of the GDPs and local recommendations was low. Differences between the two counties were non-significant. Furthermore, within Orebro, GDPs who did not have formal access to local recommendations did not differ in their administration strategies from those who did. The choice of substance was seldom in agreement with the substance recommended, while the majority followed the recommended duration of treatment. CONCLUSION: Although recommendations existed, their impact appeared to be limited. This is significant, since the implementation of recommendations is crucial in making clinical practice more effective and in promoting the health of patients.
The purpose of this study was to determine the composition of the microbial flora present in teeth after the failure of root canal therapy in a North American population. These results were then compared with those of the previous Scandinavian studies.
Fifty-four root-filled teeth with persistent periapical radiolucencies were selected for retreatment. After removal of the root-filling material, the canals were sampled with paper points, and by reaming of the apical dentin. Both samples were grown under aerobic and strict anaerobic conditions. Then the bacterial growth was analyzed.
The microbial flora was mainly of 1 to 2 strains of predominantly gram-positive organisms. Enterococcus faecalis was the most commonly recovered bacterial species.
Bacteria were cultivated in 34 of the 54 teeth examined in the study. E faecalis was identified in 30% of the teeth with a positive culture.