We used the nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database to analyse cancer risks in 613,000 adult immigrants to Sweden. All the immigrants had become parents in Sweden and their median age at immigration was 24 years for men and 22 years for women. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 18 cancer sites using native Swedes as a reference. Data were also available from compatriot marriages. All cancer was decreased by 5% and 8% for immigrant men and women, respectively. However, most of the male increase was due to lung cancer for which male immigrants showed a 41% excess. Among individual cancer sites and immigrant countries, 110 comparisons were significant, 62 showing protection and 48 an increased risk. Most of the differences between the rates in immigrants and Swedes could be ascribed to the variation of cancer incidence in the indigenous populations. Some high immigrant SIRs were 5.05 (n = 6, 95% CI 1.82-11.06) for stomach cancer in Rumanian women and 2.41 (41, 1.73-3.27) for lung cancer in Dutch men. At some sites, such as testis, prostate, skin (melanoma), kidney, cervix and nervous system, the SIRs for immigrants were decreased; in some groups of immigrants SIRs were about 0.20. The highest rates for testicular cancer were noted for Danes and Chileans. Women from Yugoslavia and Turkey had an excess of thyroid tumours. All immigrant groups showed breast, endometrial and ovarian cancers at or below the Swedish level but the differences were no more than 2-fold.
To examine the effects of early emotional neglect on children's affective development, we assessed children who had experienced institutionalized care prior to adoption into family environments. One task required children to identify photographs of facial expressions of emotion. A second task required children to match facial expressions to an emotional situation. Internationally adopted, postinstitutionalized children had difficulty identifying facial expressions of emotion. In addition, postinstitutionalized children had significant difficulty matching appropriate facial expressions to happy, sad, and fearful scenarios. However, postinstitutionalized children performed as well as comparison children when asked to identify and match angry facial expressions. These results are discussed in terms of the importance of emotional input early in life on later developmental organization.
Cites: Am J Orthopsychiatry. 1999 Oct;69(4):424-3710553454
Cites: J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1992 May;31(3):518-241592786
Human and nonhuman animal studies reveal that early experiences with caregivers shape children's ability to regulate their responses to stress. To understand the effects of early deprivation on the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis following social interactions, we examined urinary cortisol levels in a group of internationally adopted children who had experienced institutional care, and thus, species-atypical attachment relationships, early in life prior to adoption. Cortisol regulation was assessed both basally and following standardized interpersonal interactions between the child and his/her mother and the child and an unfamiliar adult. Postinstitutionalized children showed prolonged elevations in cortisol levels following the mother, but not the stranger, interaction. More severe neglect was associated with the highest basal cortisol levels and the most impaired cortisol regulation following the mother interaction. These results suggest that early social deprivation may contribute to long-term regulatory problems of the stress-responsive system, and that these differences are most evident within the context of ongoing, close interpersonal relationships.
To study the developmental, behavioral, and medical features in a cohort of Romanian children adopted by Manitoba families.
A prospective longitudinal study.
The Child Development Clinic, Children's Hospital, Winnipeg, Manitoba, from September 1990 to June 1992.
Developmental, behavioral, and medical features were assessed in 22 Romanian children adopted by 18 Manitoba families.
Mean (+/- SD) age at adoption was 15.5 +/- 13 months. Mean (+/- SD) age at initial assessment was 19 +/- 12 months and at follow-up, 35 +/- 13 months. Medical complications included 6 children (27%) who were positive for the hepatitis B surface antigen, 5 with intestinal parasites (23%), 1 positive for the human immunodeficiency virus, 1 with rickets (5%), and 1 with monoplegia and cleft palate (5%). Initial growth parameters were less than the fifth percentile for age for head circumference in 10 children (45%), for weight in 8 (36%), and for height in 7 (32%). At follow-up, statistically significant improvement was seen in height and weight. Initial mean (+/- SD) developmental quotients were 82 +/- 20 for gross motor, 83 +/- 23 for fine motor, 83 +/- 19 for cognitive, and 79 +/- 18 for language domains. Follow-up mean developmental quotients improved in all domains (P
Attachment and indiscriminately friendly behavior were assessed in children who had spent at least 8 months in a Romanian orphanage (RO) and two comparison groups of children: a Canadian-born, nonadopted, never institutionalized comparison group (CB) and an early adopted comparison group adopted from Romania before the age of 4 months (EA). Attachment was assessed using 2 measures: an attachment security questionnaire based on parent report, and a Separation Reunion procedure that was coded using the Preschool Assessment of Attachment. Indiscriminately friendly behavior was examined using parents' responses to 5 questions about their children's behavior with new adults. Although RO children did not score differently from either CB or EA children on the attachment security measure based on parent report, they did display significantly more insecure attachment patterns than did children in the other 2 groups. In addition, RO children displayed significantly more indiscriminately friendly behavior than both CB and EA children, who did not differ in terms of indiscriminate friendliness. RO children's insecure attachment patterns were not associated with any aspect of their institutional environment, but were related to particular child and family characteristics. Specifically, insecure RO children had more behavior problems, scored lower on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, and had parents who reported significantly more parenting stress than RO children classified as secure.