Snowmobile accidents and moose-car crashes are typical accidents in Northern Sweden. In this region there is about 1 snowmobile/10 inhabitants. The present paper combines previously published studies. The studies on snowmobile accidents are based on a material comprising all 61 fatally injured snowmobile drivers from the four northern counties of Sweden during the period 1973-1987. The helmet usage was analyzed in two clinical study populations including 200 injured from the county of Västerbotten from two periods 1979-1980 and 1985-86. Of the fatally injured (median age 32 years) 86% were driving under the influence of alcohol with a mean blood alcohol concentration of 0.17 g/ml. Serious head injuries were uncommon among persons driving without a helmet in the clinical material. Only in about 6% of the cases an open face helmet would probably have had an injury reducing effect. Drunken driving is an important etiological factor for fatal snowmobile accidents. Preventive measures must include information that the Traffic Temperance Law also applies to snowmobile riding. A helmet law for snowmobile riders does not seem to be motivated from the injury reduction point of view. According to official Swedish police statistics more than 400 car occupants are injured annually in crashes with a moose. The crash mechanism is special. Because of its long legs the body of the moose hits directly against the windshield, windshield pillars and front roof. During a period of three years 154 injured passenger car occupants were treated in the hospitals in Umeå and Skellefteå. Of both the front and rear seat occupants 80% suffered laceration injuries from glass or glass splinters.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
This study examined the incidence of alcohol and drugs in a sample of seriously injured motor vehicle collision victims, and differences related to pre-crash use of alcohol and/or other drugs on demographic variables, injury severity measures, and crash variables. The sample selected were all motor vehicle collision admissions to the Regional Trauma Unit at the Sunnybrook Health Science Centre in Toronto, Ontario, over a 37-month period (N = 854). Prospective demographic and injury-related information were collected from hospital charts, and crash data were collected from motor vehicle collision police reports. Blood samples were routinely collected on admission and tested for blood alcohol concentration (BAC). We found 32.0% of the BAC-tested motor vehicle collision admissions and 35.5% of drivers tested positive for blood alcohol. The drivers' mean BAC on admission was found to be 145.2 mg/100 ml, and the mean estimated BAC at crash time was 181 mg/100 ml. Drug screens were performed on a two-year subsample (n = 474), of whom 339 were drivers. Drug screens revealed that 41.3% of drivers tested positive for other drugs in body fluids, and 16.5% were positive for alcohol in combination with other drugs. Other than alcohol, the drugs most frequently detected in the drivers were cannabinoids (13.9%), benzodiazepines (12.4%), and cocaine (5.3%). Investigation of differences on demographic, injury, and crash characteristics related to precrash use of alcohol and/or drugs yielded significant findings. In the drug screened sample we found sex, admission type, and occupant status were related to precrash alcohol use. Also, use of drugs was found to interact with admission type and mean BAC on admission. Elapsed time was found to be significantly different for BAC by other drug use, with a greater length of elapsed time found for the subjects testing other drug positive but BAC negative. We found that BAC-positive drug-screened drivers were significantly more likely to be male, involved in a single-vehicle collision, not wearing a seat belt, ejected from the vehicle, and travelling at higher speeds than BAC negative drivers. No significant differences were found between BAC and/or other drug use on injury severity measures.
The aim of the study was to characterize the nature of the injuries sustained by children involved in all-terrain vehicle (ATV) crashes in Southwestern Ontario over a 5-year period.
A retrospective chart review was conducted of children who sustained ATV-related trauma and who presented to the emergency department at the Children's Hospital of Western Ontario between Sept. 1, 1998, and Aug. 31, 2003, with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) = 12. Patients were identified by the London Health Sciences Centre Trauma Program Registry. Patient charts were then retrieved and reviewed to record patient demographics, injuries, interventions and length of stay in hospital.
Seventeen patients, 14 male and 3 female, met inclusion criteria. Ages ranged from 8-17 years, with an average age of 13.7 years. Thirteen were
To describe all terrain vehicle (ATV) ownership, access, use, and safety behaviours in rural Manitoba children.
Questionnaire administered to a convenience sample of grade 6 students attending an agricultural fair.
162 grade 6 children participated. The mean age was 11.4 years, and 46% were male. 125 students (77%) reported having access to ATVs, including 69 four wheeled, 24 three wheeled, and four both three and four wheeled ATVs. ATV experience was reported in 95 students, significantly more often in males and among those with a family owned ATV, with no difference between children living on a farm and in a town. Use of helmets and protective clothing was inadequate (10-40%), and dangerous riding habits common, with males and children living on a farm reporting significantly fewer desirable behaviours.
ATVs are commonly used by children in rural Manitoba, with inadequate protective gear and dangerous riding habits. Mandatory rider training, consumer and dealer education, and legislation enforcement could improve ATV safety in this population.
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Using injuries associated with three-wheeled all-terrain vehicles in Alaska as an example, the existing injury data bases were assessed for usefulness, cost, simplicity, acceptability, flexibility, sensitivity, specificity, representativeness, and timeliness. In this study strengths and weaknesses of existing data for all-terrain vehicles were identified and ways to improve data collection and linkages across data systems are suggested. Based on this evaluation, linked death certificates and medical examiner data provide an excellent mechanism for monitoring vehicle-related fatalities. Information sources for nonfatal and nonvehicle-related injuries require further development. Police records provide supplemental information, but they are limited to the events reported to police. Although other sources were explored, they added no advantage to the primary sources. Data processing, analysis, and dissemination--traditional responsibilities for public health and other governmental agencies--can transform these data sources into meaningful mechanisms to define injury trends and monitor injury-specific intervention strategies.
To investigate the association of alcohol use and night driving with traumatic snowmobile fatalities.
Traumatic deaths occurring while driving a snowmobile during the years 1985 to 1990 were reviewed. A sample of 1989 to 1990 fatal motor vehicle driver and motorcycle driver accidents were used as controls. Records were obtained from the provincial coroner.
One hundred eight snowmobile fatalities, 432 motor vehicle fatalities, and 108 motorcycle fatalities were included. Young men (mean age, 30 years) made up the snowmobile fatalities population, with weekend fatalities predominating (67%). Snowmobile fatalities were associated with use during times of suboptimal lighting (crude odds ratio, 1.9 [95% confidence interval, 1.1-3.3]; P
Comment In: Ann Emerg Med. 1995 May;25(5):717-87741357
To compare the nature of injuries from all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) to those from bicycling, dirtbikes/motocross, and motor vehicle crashes.
Data on injuries from the mechanisms outlined above were obtained through CHIRPP (the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program) and hospital records.
A Canadian tertiary pediatric center.
Cases presenting to the emergency department over a 10 year period.
Comparison between demographics, mechanisms and natures of injuries sustained, disposition from the emergency department, and lengths of hospital stay.
Contrary to bicycling, ATV related injuries occurred among older ages and appeared to result less often from loss of control. Severe injuries resulting in deep soft tissue trauma and fracture/dislocations were 1.7 and 1.5 times, respectively, more frequent among ATV trauma than bicycling (p