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1080 records – page 1 of 108.

2nd-generation HIV surveillance and injecting drug use: uncovering the epidemiological ice-berg.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature84543
Source
Int J Public Health. 2007;52(3):166-72
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
Reintjes Ralf
Wiessing Lucas
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, Faculty Life Sciences, Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Hamburg, Germany. Ralf.Reintjes@rzbd.haw-hamburg.de
Source
Int J Public Health. 2007;52(3):166-72
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - epidemiology - prevention & control - therapy
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Europe - epidemiology
HIV Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control - therapy
Hepatitis C - epidemiology
Humans
Norway - epidemiology
Population Surveillance
Prevalence
Risk factors
Risk-Taking
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - epidemiology
Turkey - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: HIV/AIDS surveillance methods are under revision as the diversity of HIV epidemics is becoming more apparent. The so called "2nd generation surveillance (SGS) systems" aim to enhance surveillance by broadening the range of indicators to prevalence, behaviors and correlates, for a better understanding and a more complete and timely awareness of evolving epidemics. METHODS: Concepts of HIV SGS are reviewed with a special focus on injecting drug users, a major at-risk and hard to reach group in Europe, a region with mainly low or concentrated epidemics. RESULTS: The scope of HIV/AIDS surveillance needs to be broadened following principles of SGS. Specifically for IDUs we propose including hepatitis C data as indicator for injecting risk in routine systems like those monitoring sexually transmitted infections and information on knowledge and attitudes as potential major determinants of risk behavior. CONCLUSIONS: The suggested approach should lead to more complete and timely information for public health interventions, however there is a clear need for comparative validation studies to assess the validity, reliability and cost-effectiveness of traditional and enhanced HIV/AIDS surveillance systems.
PubMed ID
17958283 View in PubMed
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A 6-year longitudinal study of caries in teenagers and the effect of "dropouts" on the findings.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature139575
Source
Community Dent Health. 2010 Sep;27(3):172-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2010
Author
I B Arnadóttir
W P Holbrook
H. Agústsdóttir
S R Saemundsson
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Odontology, University of Iceland Reykjavík, Iceland. iarnad@hi.is
Source
Community Dent Health. 2010 Sep;27(3):172-7
Date
Sep-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
DMF Index
Dental Caries - epidemiology - radiography
Fisheries
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Incidence
Longitudinal Studies
Patient Dropouts - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Reproducibility of Results
Research Subjects - psychology
Risk-Taking
Rural Population
Urban Population
Young Adult
Abstract
To investigate attrition of subjects in a longitudinal study of caries.
A radiographic study of caries and caries-associated factors was carried out in subjects, initially aged 14 years, and followed-up for six years. Attrition of subjects occurred at the last stage of the study.
A nationwide survey of subjects living in fishing, rural farming, and urban communities in Iceland.
A sub-sample of the nationwide random sample comprising 150 subjects was investigated using bitewing radiographs and a structured questionnaire to determine caries-risk factors. Subjects were re-examined at 16 years and 20 years using the same methods.
Mean caries increment from 14-16 years was 3.0 lesions (1.5 lesions/subject/year) but reduced to 2.6 lesions (0.7 lesions/subject/ year) by 20y. The proportion of subjects found to be caries-free at 14 years, 16 years and 20 years, was 29%, 17% and 10%, respectively. "Dropouts" from this study occurred mostly after 16 years. Analysis of subjects dropping out showed that they were least likely to be from the rural farming community but most likely from the fishing community. Those dropping out attended their dentist less frequently, had a higher consumption of carbonated drinks and a higher prevalence and incidence of caries by 16 years.
Subjects with high-risk behaviours, or residents in a fishing community were more likely to drop out of the study. Recognised advantages of conducting longitudinal studies of caries may, therefore, be lost.
PubMed ID
21046910 View in PubMed
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A 10-year study of snowboard injuries in Lapland Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature30431
Source
Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2004 Apr;14(2):128-33
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2004
Author
C. Made
L-G Elmqvist
Author Affiliation
The Tärnaby Health Center, Tärnaby, Sweden. curt.made@vll.se
Source
Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2004 Apr;14(2):128-33
Date
Apr-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Athletic Injuries - classification - epidemiology
Child
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Risk-Taking
Skiing - injuries - statistics & numerical data
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Abstract
Snowboard injuries in a Swedish ski area were evaluated from 1989 to 1999. All injured skiers (alpine, telemark, snowboarders) who sought medical attention at the local Medical Center within 48 h of the accident, were asked to answer an injury form. Physicians assessed and treated the injured skiers. There were a total of 1775 injured skiers; 568 injured snowboarders mean age 19 years. The female/male ratio was 34/66%, the injury rate 3/1000 skier days, three times higher than that of alpine skiers. The skill level of the injured snowboard riders improved during the period. The fall/run ratio of the beginners was higher (1.0) and their risk behavior lower (3.9 on visual analogue scale 1-10) in comparison to the advanced riders (0.4 and 6.6, respectively). Injuries were in 54% located to the upper extremity, 35% were wrist/lower arm injuries. Beginners had significantly higher frequency of lower arm/wrist injuries (46%), than average (32%) and advanced riders (20%). The most frequent single diagnosis was wrist/lower arm fracture (20%). Advanced riders tend to have more head/neck injuries than beginners, 17% vs. 13% (NS). Thus, with elevated skill level the injury pattern changed. For injury prevention, wrist guards and helmets are recommended for snowboard riders.
PubMed ID
15043635 View in PubMed
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The 2005 British Columbia smoking cessation mass media campaign and short-term changes in smokers attitudes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature158616
Source
J Health Commun. 2008 Mar;13(2):125-48
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2008
Author
Lynda Gagné
Author Affiliation
School of Public Administration, University of Victoria, Victoria BC, Canada. lgagne@uvic.ca
Source
J Health Commun. 2008 Mar;13(2):125-48
Date
Mar-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Attitude to Health
British Columbia
Female
Health Behavior
Health promotion
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Mass Media
Program Development
Prospective Studies
Psychometrics
Risk-Taking
Smoking
Smoking Cessation - methods
Social Marketing
Time Factors
Abstract
The effect of the 2005 British Columbia (BC) smoking cessation mass media campaign on a panel (N = 1,341) of 20-30-year-old smokers' attitudes is evaluated. The 5-week campaign consisted of posters, television, and radio ads about the health benefits of cessation. Small impacts on the panel's attitudes toward the adverse impacts of smoking were found, with greater impacts found for those who had no plans to quit smoking at the initial interview. As smokers with no plans to quit increasingly recognized the adverse impacts of smoking, they also increasingly agreed that they use smoking as a coping mechanism. Smokers with plans to quit at the initial interview already were well aware of smoking's adverse impacts. Respondents recalling the campaign poster, which presented a healthy alternative to smoking, decreased their perception of smoking as a coping mechanism and devalued their attachment to smoking. Evidence was found that media ad recall mediates unobserved predictors of attitudes toward smoking.
PubMed ID
18300065 View in PubMed
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Access to sterile injecting equipment is more important than awareness of HCV status for injection risk behaviors among drug users.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature152406
Source
Subst Use Misuse. 2009;44(4):548-68
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Joseph Cox
Carole Morissette
Prithwish De
Claude Tremblay
Robert Allard
Lisa Graves
Randolph Stephenson
Elise Roy
Author Affiliation
Direction de Santé publique, Agence de la Santé et des services Sociaux de Montreal, Montreal, Canada. jcox@santepub-mtl.qc.ca
Source
Subst Use Misuse. 2009;44(4):548-68
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Hepatitis C - complications - diagnosis - prevention & control - psychology
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Logistic Models
Male
Methadone
Middle Aged
Needle-Exchange Programs
Quebec
Risk-Taking
Social Support
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - psychology - virology
Abstract
Awareness of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection status is expected to influence risk behaviors. In 2004-2005, injection drug users (IDUs) recruited from syringe exchange programs (SEPs) and methadone clinics in Montreal, Canada, were interviewed on drug use behaviors (past 6 months) and HCV testing. Subjects (n = 230) were classified as low/intermediate risk (20.4% borrowed drug preparation equipment only) and high risk (19.6% borrowed syringes), and 54.5% reported being HCV positive. Logistic regression modeling showed that compared to no risk (60% borrowed nothing), low/intermediate risk was associated with fewer noninjecting social network members, poor physical health, and problems obtaining sterile injecting equipment. High risk was associated with all of these factors except social networks. HCV status was not associated with any level of risk. Improved access to sterile injecting equipment may be more important than knowledge of HCV status in reducing injection risks among this IDU population. The study limitations are noted and recommendations discussed.
Notes
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PubMed ID
19242863 View in PubMed
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Access to syringes in three Russian cities: implications for syringe distribution and coverage.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature158518
Source
Int J Drug Policy. 2008 Apr;19 Suppl 1:S25-36
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2008
Author
Anya Sarang
Tim Rhodes
Lucy Platt
Author Affiliation
Russian Harm Reduction Network, Ilimskaya Street, 4-1-38, 127576 Moscow, Russia. anyasarang@gmail.com
Source
Int J Drug Policy. 2008 Apr;19 Suppl 1:S25-36
Date
Apr-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Data Collection
Female
HIV Infections - prevention & control - transmission
Health Services Accessibility - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Needle-Exchange Programs - economics - utilization
Pharmacies - organization & administration
Preventive Health Services - economics - organization & administration
Risk-Taking
Russia
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - complications
Syringes - supply & distribution
Urban Health Services - supply & distribution
Abstract
We report findings from a multi-method study investigating drug injectors' access to needles and syringes in three large Russian cities (Moscow, Volgograd, Barnaul).
We undertook 209 qualitative interviews among drug injectors, and supplemented these with baseline data from a community-recruited survey of 1473 drug injectors.
Almost all (93%; 1277) injectors used pharmacies as their main source of clean injecting equipment, and only 7% (105) reported ever having had contact with city syringe exchange projects. Good access to syringes has coincided with the expansion of private pharmacies. Key factors contributing to pharmacy access included: geographic proximity; low cost; and the restrictive policies of exchange instituted at local syringe exchanges. A fear of police interference surrounded the use of pharmacies and syringe exchanges, and fed a reluctance to carry used needles and syringes, which in turn acted as a disincentive to syringe exchange attendance. The perceived benefits of syringe exchanges over pharmacies included the additional health services on offer and the social support provided, but these benefits were over-shadowed by disadvantages. Multivariable analyses of survey data in two cities show no differences on account of risk behaviour among injectors sourcing equipment from pharmacies compared to syringe exchanges.
HIV prevention coverage indicators need to include measures of pharmacy-based syringe distribution and not only measures of syringe exchange coverage. There is an urgent need to pilot pharmacy-based distribution and exchange projects in Russia as well as other forms of secondary syringe distribution. Alongside expanding the reach of dedicated syringe exchange projects, pharmacy-based syringe distribution, and exchange, may help improve coverage of cost effective HIV prevention measures targeting drug injectors.
PubMed ID
18313910 View in PubMed
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Accidents in the Arctic. A psychological point of view.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature5950
Source
Arctic Med Res. 1992;51 Suppl 7:71-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
1992
Author
T. Klen
Author Affiliation
Kuopio Regional Institute of Occupational Health, Finland.
Source
Arctic Med Res. 1992;51 Suppl 7:71-6
Date
1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accident prevention
Accidents - psychology
Arctic Regions
Cold Climate
Humans
Risk-Taking
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to discuss the influence of arctic conditions on the occurrence of accidents especially from the point of view of the interaction between environment, activity and man. Special attention is paid to risk assessment, risk taking and risk compensation. According to the danger factor theory frostbites should be extremely common in arctic regions, but in reality serious frostbites appear rarely in accident statistics. This finding supports the interactive accident theories. Instead cold can be a contributing factor in accident and injury causation and the effect of cold is most often indirect. Frostbites can occur e.g. as a result of an accident, losing one's way because of darkness, snow storm etc., wet clothes, unexpected temperature changes, disease attack, alcohol-induced reasons such as immobility or excess risk taking etc. Temperatures below and above +20 degrees C increase unsafe behavior. In the Arctic it is impossible to remove all the potentially dangerous factors, because many typical features of working and living conditions are regulated by natural forces, the seasons etc. This makes accurate risk assessment and prediction especially important in accident prevention. If the person does not recognize the situations in which the risk factors exist, he/she cannot implement precautionary steps at the right moment and hence cannot avoid risks. Moreover, if better and safer machines, equipment and tools get people to take greater risks, the accident situation can even become worse.
PubMed ID
1285822 View in PubMed
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Acquisition of extended spectrum ß-lactamases during travel abroad-A qualitative study among Swedish travellers examining their knowledge, risk assessment, and behaviour.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282072
Source
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being. 2016;11:32378
Publication Type
Article
Date
2016
Author
Susanne Wiklund
Ingegerd Fagerberg
Åke Örtqvist
Kristina Broliden
Ann Tammelin
Source
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being. 2016;11:32378
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Bacterial Infections
Bacterial Proteins
Carrier state
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Female
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Qualitative Research
Risk assessment
Risk-Taking
Sweden
Travel
beta-Lactamases
Abstract
Travel to foreign countries involves the risk of becoming a carrier of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, especially when the destination is a country with a high prevalence of this type of bacteria.
The aim of this study was to learn about the knowledge of antibiotic resistance, and the behaviour and risk-taking among travellers, who had become carriers of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL)-producing bacteria during travel to a high-prevalence country. A modified version of grounded theory was used to analyse 15 open interviews.
The analysis resulted in a core category: A need for knowledge to avoid risk-taking. Before the journey, the participants did not perceive there to be any risk of becoming a carrier of antibiotic- resistant bacteria. The low level of knowledge of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and transmission routes influenced their behaviour and risk-taking during their journey, resulting in them exposing themselves to risk situations. After their trip, the majority did not believe that their personal risk behaviour could have caused them to become carriers of ESBL.
The participants' lack of knowledge of antibiotic-resistant bacteria resulted in unconscious risk-taking during their journey, which may have resulted in becoming carriers of ESBL-producing bacteria.
Notes
Cites: Euro Surveill. 2010 Nov 18;15(46):null21144431
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PubMed ID
27806830 View in PubMed
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Activity levels among adolescents with migraine.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168117
Source
Pediatr Neurol. 2006 Aug;35(2):119-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2006
Author
Joseph M Dooley
Kevin E Gordon
Ellen P Wood
Paula M Brna
Author Affiliation
Pediatric Neurology Division, Dalhousie University and the IWK Health Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. jdooley@dal.ca
Source
Pediatr Neurol. 2006 Aug;35(2):119-21
Date
Aug-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Adult
Canada
Case-Control Studies
Exercise
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Migraine Disorders - psychology
Recreation
Risk-Taking
Abstract
Data was analyzed from the nationally representative Canadian Community Health Survey. A total of 17,549 adolescents reported whether they had "migraine headaches" (response rate 99.9%) and in what exercise activities they participated. Those with migraine reported more daily activity than migraine-free peers when corrected for age and sex. They were as likely to play contact sports but were more involved in other noncompetitive activities, such as walking (P
PubMed ID
16876008 View in PubMed
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Adaptation of adopted foreign children at mid-adolescence as indicated by aspects of health and risk taking--a population study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature34075
Source
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1997 Dec;6(4):199-206
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1997
Author
K. Berg-Kelly
J. Eriksson
Author Affiliation
Department of Pediatrics, East Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
Source
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1997 Dec;6(4):199-206
Date
Dec-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adolescent
Adoption - psychology
Case-Control Studies
Family Health
Female
Health Behavior
Humans
India - ethnology
Korea - ethnology
Logistic Models
Male
Odds Ratio
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk-Taking
Sexual Behavior
Social Adjustment
Social Behavior Disorders
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden
Abstract
PURPOSE: There is very little data available on adaptation at adolescence after "visible adoptions" (children adopted from abroad), in terms of mental health, risk-taking and problem behaviour in comparison with nonadopted adolescents. This study describes such an outcome. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Data derived from self-reports from 125 adolescents aged 13-18 years who identified themselves as adopted, and who participated in two epidemiological surveys of 9329 adolescents. Their number was representative for children adopted from abroad. The other adolescents served as controls. RESULTS: Family life styles showed no differences between groups. Health was similar to that of the controls. Foreign adopted adolescents significantly often evaluated themselves as shorter and with early puberty. The proportion of adopted girls with suicidal thoughts was significantly larger, they also reported school truancy, not using safety belts, sexual intercourse, unpleasant sexual encounters, and contact with illicit drugs more often than the controls. The stress of early puberty could only partly explain this. CONCLUSIONS: Girls adopted from abroad, representing "visible adoptions", need additional attention and study during adolescence to expose causes for maladaption among some of them.
PubMed ID
9442998 View in PubMed
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1080 records – page 1 of 108.