A self-administered questionnaire completed by 683 male farmers showed individuals incurring a farming-related injury more likely to score higher on a measure of personal risk-taking and to believe that accidents were inevitable (fatalism). Specific safe farming practices--wearing protective clothing and operating machinery safely--were associated with lower likelihood of injury. Traditional predictors of involvement in accidents (age, exposure to hazards, and work experience) were not significant.
There is growing evidence of extensive damage from alcohol to chronic disease, trauma, social problems and high economic costs. In a number of countries there has been an increase in consumption and/or high risk drinking in recent years. However, it appears that in many context alcohol management is not yet of high priority. Canada has experienced several developments in recent years: a gradual increase in overall consumption, an increase in high risk drinking, more extensive marketing and promotion of alcoholic beverages, and easier access to alcohol. Survey data for Canada, and for Ontario, the most populous province, indicate that the proportion drinking 5+ per occasion has increased since the mid-1990s. Overall, alcohol-related harm has been conservatively estimated to contribute to $14 billion to social costs using 2002 Canadian data. There are a national and several provincial-level alcohol strategies designed to reducing alcohol-related problems, but they are at the proposal, not full-scale implementation, stage. In order to generate effective, efficient and decisive action and reduce overall harm, several recommendations are highlighted: an increase in alcohol pricing/taxation, a ceiling on further access via controls on outlet density and hours of sale, a rejuvenation of the control functions of liquor boards, and the resources to effectively implementation these measures.
In public health efforts, knowledge about risk-groups is important for creating societal conditions to ensure good health on equal terms.
To investigate differences in lifestyle and perceived health among 15-year-old teenagers with experience of sexual intercourse (self-defined) and same-aged teenagers without experience of sexual intercourse.
A two-cluster questionnaire study among 15-year-old Swedish students (n = 2170) in 2009/10. Chi-squared test was used to identify differences between three groups: teenagers who had not had sexual intercourse; teenagers who had had sexual intercourse at age of 14 or younger; and teenagers who had had intercourse at an age of 15.
Thirty-two per cent (n = 334) of girls and 31% (n = 324) of boys had had sexual intercourse. Teenagers with experience of sexual intercourse at 15 years or younger used more tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs than same-aged teenagers without intercourse experience did. Furthermore, teenagers with experience of intercourse, especially those with a debut at 14 year or younger, had less positive school experiences, more involvement in injuries and physical violence, were less (girls) and more (boys) physically active, and perceived a poorer health than teenagers without intercourse experience.
Sexual intercourse at the age of 15 or younger is an indicator for a hazardous lifestyle and problematic life situation.
The aim of this paper is to discuss the influence of arctic conditions on the occurrence of accidents especially from the point of view of the interaction between environment, activity and man. Special attention is paid to risk assessment, risk taking and risk compensation. According to the danger factor theory frostbites should be extremely common in arctic regions, but in reality serious frostbites appear rarely in accident statistics. This finding supports the interactive accident theories. Instead cold can be a contributing factor in accident and injury causation and the effect of cold is most often indirect. Frostbites can occur e.g. as a result of an accident, losing one's way because of darkness, snow storm etc., wet clothes, unexpected temperature changes, disease attack, alcohol-induced reasons such as immobility or excess risk taking etc. Temperatures below and above +20 degrees C increase unsafe behavior. In the Arctic it is impossible to remove all the potentially dangerous factors, because many typical features of working and living conditions are regulated by natural forces, the seasons etc. This makes accurate risk assessment and prediction especially important in accident prevention. If the person does not recognize the situations in which the risk factors exist, he/she cannot implement precautionary steps at the right moment and hence cannot avoid risks. Moreover, if better and safer machines, equipment and tools get people to take greater risks, the accident situation can even become worse.
The author describes the milestones of the development of health risk analysis methodology within the system of sanitary and hygienic monitoring. He gives definitions of risk of disorder of sanitary-and-epidemiological well-being of population, acceptable, target, and maximum permissible risk. The author considers methods of practical application of risk analysis methodology for quantitative evaluation of health detriment in the interests of authorities of various levels. The united role here belongs to Interdepartmental commission on risk evaluation. The author analyzes prospective directions and the main problems of further development of scientific and juridical fundamentals of risk evaluation methodology that will be topical within the nearest years.
The present investigation is a cross-sectional, multi-national, quantitative, and quasi-experimental comparison of tourists' risk perceptions regarding different destinations throughout the past decade. Over 10,000 tourists to Norway from 89 different countries filled in a questionnaire rating the perceived risk for various destinations. Data were collected during 2004, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2015 and allow for a comparison of perceived risk across time, place and nationality. Results show that while absolute risk judgments for different destinations fluctuate somewhat over the years, relative risk judgments remain constant. Findings also reveal a "home-is-safer-then-abroad-bias" with tourists consistently perceiving their home country among the safest destinations. The current investigation is rare because it looks at more than one destination at a time. Insights gained from the present findings diverge from what would have been concluded from employing case studies, that is, looking at one destination at a time.