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1,3-Butadiene: exposure estimation, hazard characterization, and exposure-response analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature186649
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2003 Jan-Feb;6(1):55-83
Publication Type
Article
Author
K. Hughes
M E Meek
M. Walker
R. Beauchamp
Author Affiliation
Existing Substances Division, Environmental Health Directorate, Health Canada, Environmental Health Centre, Tunney's Pasture PL0802B1, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0L2.
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2003 Jan-Feb;6(1):55-83
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Butadienes - metabolism - toxicity
Canada - epidemiology
Carcinogens, Environmental - toxicity
Environmental Exposure
Hazardous Substances - toxicity
Humans
Mutagens - toxicity
Neoplasms - chemically induced - epidemiology
Occupational Diseases - chemically induced - epidemiology
Risk assessment
Abstract
1,3-Butadiene has been assessed as a Priority Substance under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. The general population in Canada is exposed to 1,3-butadiene primarily through ambient air. Inhaled 1,3-butadiene is carcinogenic in both mice and rats, inducing tumors at multiple sites at all concentrations tested in all identified studies. In addition, 1,3-butadiene is genotoxic in both somatic and germ cells of rodents. It also induces adverse effects in the reproductive organs of female mice at relatively low concentrations. The greater sensitivity in mice than in rats to induction of these effects by 1,3-butadiene is likely related to species differences in metabolism to active epoxide metabolites. Exposure to 1,3-butadiene in the occupational environment has been associated with the induction of leukemia; there is also some limited evidence that 1,3-butadiene is genotoxic in exposed workers. Therefore, in view of the weight of evidence of available epidemiological and toxicological data, 1,3-butadiene is considered highly likely to be carcinogenic, and likely to be genotoxic, in humans. Estimates of the potency of butadiene to induce cancer have been derived on the basis of both epidemiological investigation and bioassays in mice and rats. Potencies to induce ovarian effects have been estimated on the basis of studies in mice. Uncertainties have been delineated, and, while there are clear species differences in metabolism, estimates of potency to induce effects are considered justifiably conservative in view of the likely variability in metabolism across the population related to genetic polymorphism for enzymes for the critical metabolic pathway.
PubMed ID
12587254 View in PubMed
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2-h postchallenge plasma glucose predicts cardiovascular events in patients with myocardial infarction without known diabetes mellitus.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature121853
Source
Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2012;11:93
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Loghman Henareh
Stefan Agewall
Author Affiliation
Department of Cardiology Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. loghman.henareh@karolinska.se
Source
Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2012;11:93
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Angina, Unstable - blood - epidemiology - mortality
Biological Markers - blood
Blood Glucose - metabolism
Chi-Square Distribution
Female
Glucose Tolerance Test
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Myocardial Infarction - blood - epidemiology - mortality
Predictive value of tests
Prognosis
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Recurrence
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Smoking - adverse effects - epidemiology
Stroke - blood - epidemiology - mortality
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Abstract
The incidence of cardiovascular events remains high in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) despite advances in current therapies. New and better methods for identifying patients at high risk of recurrent cardiovascular (CV) events are needed. This study aimed to analyze the predictive value of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in patients with acute myocardial infarction without known diabetes mellitus (DM).
The prospective cohort study consisted of 123 men and women aged between 31-80 years who had suffered a previous MI 3-12 months before the examinations. The exclusion criteria were known diabetes mellitus. Patients were followed up over 6.03???1.36 years for CV death, recurrent MI, stroke and unstable angina pectoris. A standard OGTT was performed at baseline.
2-h plasma glucose (HR, 1.27, 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.62; P?
Notes
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PubMed ID
22873202 View in PubMed
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2-year clinical performance of a fluoride-containing fissure sealant in young schoolchildren at caries risk.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature34233
Source
Am J Dent. 1997 Jun;10(3):115-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1997
Author
A. Carlsson
M. Petersson
S. Twetman
Author Affiliation
Public Dental Clinic, Vallås, Sweden.
Source
Am J Dent. 1997 Jun;10(3):115-9
Date
Jun-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Analysis of Variance
Cariostatic Agents - analysis - therapeutic use
Chi-Square Distribution
Child
Colony Count, Microbial
Composite Resins - chemistry - therapeutic use
Dental Caries - epidemiology - prevention & control
Dental Plaque - microbiology
Fluorides - analysis - pharmacology - therapeutic use
Humans
Lactobacillus - drug effects - isolation & purification
Pit and Fissure Sealants - therapeutic use
Prevalence
Risk assessment
Saliva - chemistry - microbiology
Statistics, nonparametric
Streptococcus mutans - drug effects - isolation & purification
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical performance of Helioseal-F, a fluoride-containing fissure sealant, in school children at caries risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A caries risk assessment based on past caries experience, saliva microbial tests, buffer capacity and frequency of sugar intake was carried out in 204 healthy children, 6-7 years of age. Children exhibiting one or more risk factors were considered at caries risk (n = 121) and their permanent molars were sealed with a fluoride-containing fissure sealant, thus forming a fissure sealant group (FSG). The remaining 83 children with low caries risk received no fissure sealants and constituted a reference group (RG). Both groups were followed for 2 years. From 15 children of both groups, unstimulated whole saliva was collected 1 month after sealant placement in order to determine fluoride levels. In another 20 children, a split-mouth study design was utilized to compare the colonization of mutans streptococci adjacent to and on F-containing sealants and conventional controls. The sealants were placed by dental hygienists according to the manufacturers' instructions. RESULTS: A total of 431 fissure sealants were placed at baseline. Complete retention was found in 76.6% during the study period while 22.0% were partially lost. Six sealants (1.4%) were completely lost. The enamel caries incidence was 45% lower (P
PubMed ID
9545884 View in PubMed
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A 2 year multidomain intervention of diet, exercise, cognitive training, and vascular risk monitoring versus control to prevent cognitive decline in at-risk elderly people (FINGER): a randomised controlled trial.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264224
Source
Lancet. 2015 Jun 6;385(9984):2255-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-6-2015
Author
Tiia Ngandu
Jenni Lehtisalo
Alina Solomon
Esko Levälahti
Satu Ahtiluoto
Riitta Antikainen
Lars Bäckman
Tuomo Hänninen
Antti Jula
Tiina Laatikainen
Jaana Lindström
Francesca Mangialasche
Teemu Paajanen
Satu Pajala
Markku Peltonen
Rainer Rauramaa
Anna Stigsdotter-Neely
Timo Strandberg
Jaakko Tuomilehto
Hilkka Soininen
Miia Kivipelto
Source
Lancet. 2015 Jun 6;385(9984):2255-63
Date
Jun-6-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Cognition Disorders - epidemiology - prevention & control
Diet
Double-Blind Method
Exercise
Exercise Therapy
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Neuropsychological Tests
Risk assessment
Vascular Diseases - epidemiology - prevention & control
Abstract
Modifiable vascular and lifestyle-related risk factors have been associated with dementia risk in observational studies. In the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER), a proof-of-concept randomised controlled trial, we aimed to assess a multidomain approach to prevent cognitive decline in at-risk elderly people from the general population.
In a double-blind randomised controlled trial we enrolled individuals aged 60-77 years recruited from previous national surveys. Inclusion criteria were CAIDE (Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia) Dementia Risk Score of at least 6 points and cognition at mean level or slightly lower than expected for age. We randomly assigned participants in a 1:1 ratio to a 2 year multidomain intervention (diet, exercise, cognitive training, vascular risk monitoring), or a control group (general health advice). Computer-generated allocation was done in blocks of four (two individuals randomly allocated to each group) at each site. Group allocation was not actively disclosed to participants and outcome assessors were masked to group allocation. The primary outcome was change in cognition as measured through comprehensive neuropsychological test battery (NTB) Z score. Analysis was by modified intention to treat (all participants with at least one post-baseline observation). This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01041989.
Between Sept 7, 2009, and Nov 24, 2011, we screened 2654 individuals and randomly assigned 1260 to the intervention group (n=631) or control group (n=629). 591 (94%) participants in the intervention group and 599 (95%) in the control group had at least one post-baseline assessment and were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. Estimated mean change in NTB total Z score at 2 years was 0·20 (SE 0·02, SD 0·51) in the intervention group and 0·16 (0·01, 0·51) in the control group. Between-group difference in the change of NTB total score per year was 0·022 (95% CI 0·002-0·042, p=0·030). 153 (12%) individuals dropped out overall. Adverse events occurred in 46 (7%) participants in the intervention group compared with six (1%) participants in the control group; the most common adverse event was musculoskeletal pain (32 [5%] individuals for intervention vs no individuals for control).
Findings from this large, long-term, randomised controlled trial suggest that a multidomain intervention could improve or maintain cognitive functioning in at-risk elderly people from the general population.
Academy of Finland, La Carita Foundation, Alzheimer Association, Alzheimer's Research and Prevention Foundation, Juho Vainio Foundation, Novo Nordisk Foundation, Finnish Social Insurance Institution, Ministry of Education and Culture, Salama bint Hamdan Al Nahyan Foundation, Axa Research Fund, EVO funding for University Hospitals of Kuopio, Oulu, and Turku and for Seinäjoki Central Hospital and Oulu City Hospital, Swedish Research Council, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, and af Jochnick Foundation.
Notes
Comment In: Nat Rev Neurol. 2015 May;11(5):24825799934
PubMed ID
25771249 View in PubMed
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A 3-year follow-up of headache diagnoses and symptoms in Swedish schoolchildren.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature81846
Source
Cephalalgia. 2006 Jul;26(7):809-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2006
Author
Laurell K.
Larsson B.
Mattsson P.
Eeg-Olofsson O.
Author Affiliation
Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. katarina.laurell@akademiska.se
Source
Cephalalgia. 2006 Jul;26(7):809-15
Date
Jul-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Male
Migraine Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Prognosis
Questionnaires
Risk Assessment - methods
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Students - statistics & numerical data
Sweden - epidemiology
Tension-Type Headache - diagnosis - epidemiology
Abstract
Information is sparse concerning the incidence and prognosis of headache in children from the general population, especially of tension-type headache. In this study, headache diagnoses and symptoms were reassessed in 122 out of 130 schoolchildren after 3 years. Nearly 80% of those with headache at first evaluation still reported headache at follow-up. Although the likelihood of experiencing the same headache diagnosis and symptoms was high, about one-fifth of children with tension-type headache developed migraine and vice versa. Female gender predicted migraine and frequent headache episodes predicted overall headache at follow-up. The estimated average annual incidence was 81 and 65 per 1000 children, for tension-type headache and migraine, respectively. We conclude that there is a considerable risk of developing and maintaining headache during childhood. Headache diagnoses should be reassessed regularly and treatment adjusted. Girls and children with frequent headache have a poorer prognosis and therefore intervention is particularly important in these groups.
PubMed ID
16776695 View in PubMed
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A 5-year prospective assessment of the risk associated with individual benzodiazepines and doses in new elderly users.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature176448
Source
J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005 Feb;53(2):233-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2005
Author
Robyn Tamblyn
Michal Abrahamowicz
Roxane du Berger
Peter McLeod
Gillian Bartlett
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. robyn.tamblyn@mcgill.ca
Source
J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005 Feb;53(2):233-41
Date
Feb-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Benzodiazepines - administration & dosage - adverse effects - pharmacokinetics
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Half-Life
Hospitalization
Humans
Male
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Quebec - epidemiology
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Wounds and Injuries - epidemiology
Abstract
To determine the risk of injury associated with the new use of individual benzodiazepines and dosage regimens in the elderly.
Prospective database cohort study with 5 years of follow-up.
Quebec, Canada.
Two hundred fifty-three thousand two hundred forty-four persons aged 65 and older who were nonusers of benzodiazepines in the year before follow-up.
Population-based hospitalization and prescription and medical services claims databases were used to compare the risk of injury during periods of benzodiazepine use with those of nonuse. Periods of use were measured for 10 insured benzodiazepines by drug and dose as time-dependent covariates. Injury was defined as the first occurrence of a nonvertebral fracture, soft-tissue injury, or accident-related hospital admission. Patient age, sex, previous injury history, concomitant medication use, and comorbidity were measured as fixed and time-dependent confounders. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the risk of injury with benzodiazepine use and to determine the extent to which patient characteristics, differences in dosage, or in the effect of increasing dosage for individual drugs explained differences between drugs.
More than one-quarter (27.6%) of 253,244 elderly were dispensed at least one prescription for a benzodiazepine, and 17.7% of elderly were treated for at least one injury during follow-up, of which fractures were the most common. Patient characteristics, systematic differences in the risk of injury in elderly prescribed different benzodiazepines, and differences in dosage prescribed for individual drugs confounded the risk of injury with benzodiazepine use. The risk of injury with increasing dosage varied by drug from a hazard ratio of 0.92 (95% confidence interval (CI)=0.60, 1.42) for alprazolam to 2.20 (95% CI=1.39, 3.47) for flurazepam per 1 standardized adult dose increase.
The risk of injury varied by benzodiazepine, independent of half-life, as did the risk associated with increasing dosage for individual products. Higher doses of oxazepam, flurazepam, and chlordiazepoxide are associated with the greatest risk of injury in the elderly.
Notes
Comment In: ACP J Club. 2005 Jul-Aug;143(1):2415989312
PubMed ID
15673346 View in PubMed
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6TH NORWEGIAN ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY SYMPOSIUM: Assessing and solving environmental challenges in a multiple stressor world.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296704
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2017; 80(16-18):805-806
Publication Type
Introductory Journal Article
Date
2017
Author
Knut Erik Tollefsen
Sam Kacew
Author Affiliation
a Section for Ecotoxicology and Risk Assessment, Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA) , Oslo , Norway.
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2017; 80(16-18):805-806
Date
2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Introductory Journal Article
Keywords
Ecotoxicology
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Environmental Pollutants - toxicity
Norway
Risk Assessment - methods
PubMed ID
28829685 View in PubMed
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10-year results of a new low-monomer cement: follow-up of a randomized RSA study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature119286
Source
Acta Orthop. 2012 Dec;83(6):604-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2012
Author
Per Söderlund
Jon Dahl
Stephan Röhrl
Bo Nivbrant
Kjell G Nilsson
Author Affiliation
Institution of Surgery and Perioperative Sciences and Department of Orthopedics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. per.soderlund@orthop.umu.se
Source
Acta Orthop. 2012 Dec;83(6):604-8
Date
Dec-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip - adverse effects - methods
Bone Cements - chemistry - therapeutic use
Confidence Intervals
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Hip Prosthesis
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Prosthesis Design
Prosthesis Failure
Range of Motion, Articular - physiology
Risk assessment
Statistics, nonparametric
Sweden
Time Factors
Titanium
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
The properties and performance of a new low-monomer cement were examined in this prospective randomized, controlled RSA study. 5-year data have already been published, showing no statistically significant differences compared to controls. In the present paper we present the 10-year results.
44 patients were originally randomized to receive total hip replacement with a Lubinus SPII titanium-aluminum-vanadium stem cemented either with the new Cemex Rx bone cement or with control bone cement, Palacos R. Patients were examined using RSA, Harris hip score, and conventional radiographs.
At 10 years, 33 hips could be evaluated clinically and 30 hips could be evaluated with RSA (16 Cemex and 14 Palacos). 9 patients had died and 4 patients were too old or infirm to be investigated. Except for 1 hip that was revised for infection after less than 5 years, no further hips were revised before the 10-year follow-up. There were no statistically significant clinical differences between the groups. The Cemex cement had magnitudes of migration similar to or sometimes lower than those of Palacos cement. In both groups, most hips showed extensive radiolucent lines, probably due to the use of titanium alloy stems.
At 10 years, the Cemex bone cement tested performed just as well as the control (Palacos bone cement).
Notes
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PubMed ID
23116438 View in PubMed
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9427 records – page 1 of 943.