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A public health perspective on the evaluation of subsistence food safety

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature2909
Source
Pages 572-575 in R. Fortuine et al., eds. Circumpolar Health 96. Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Anchorage, Alaska, 1996. Int J Circumpolar Health. 1998;57 Supp 1.
Publication Type
Article
Date
1998
food chain, generating concerns about the safety of subsistence food consumption. One approach for evaluating subsistence food safety is a process used extensively in regulating environmental clean-up and pollution standards. This process, regulatory risk assessment, is substantially different from
  1 document  
Author
Egeland, G.M.
Ponce, R.A.
Middaugh, J.P.
Author Affiliation
Section of Epidemiology, Alaska Division of Public Health, Anchorage, USA
Source
Pages 572-575 in R. Fortuine et al., eds. Circumpolar Health 96. Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Anchorage, Alaska, 1996. Int J Circumpolar Health. 1998;57 Supp 1.
Date
1998
Language
English
Geographic Location
Multi-National
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Contaminants
Public Policy
Risk assessment
Subsistence foods
Abstract
Persistent organic compounds and trace metals are found in the arctic food chain, generating concerns about the safety of subsistence food consumption. One approach for evaluating subsistence food safety is a process used extensively in regulating environmental clean-up and pollution standards. This process, regulatory risk assessment, is substantially different from approaches used in public health risk assessment. Limitations to the use of regulatory risk assessment in assessing public health threats from environmental exposures in the diet include a narrow scope, a lack of incorporation of the nutritional and health benefits of subsistence foods, and the overestimation of risks because of the incorporation of worst-case assumptions in the absence of scientific information. Sound public health policy recognizes that attempts to err on the side of safety for one exposure by recommending reduced consumption of a selected food may inadvertently err on the side of harm by reducing a coexisting exposure of potentially great health benefit. The following discussion should serve as a useful background for future multidisciplinary discussions on the safety of subsistence foods in the Arctic.
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Unethical behaviour by the pharmaceutical industry is putting Canadian children's lives at risk, suggests editorial.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature133656
Source
BMJ. 2011;342:d3787
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Barbara Kermode-Scott
Source
BMJ. 2011;342:d3787
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Child
Drug Industry
Humans
Risk assessment
PubMed ID
21680630 View in PubMed
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A social-cognitive perspective of terrorism risk perception and individual response in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature149333
Source
Risk Anal. 2009 Sep;29(9):1265-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2009
Author
Jennifer E C Lee
Louise Lemyre
Author Affiliation
GAP-Santé Research Unit, Desmarais Hall, University of Ottawa, 55 Laurier Avenue East, Room 3217, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5, Canada. jeclee@alumni.uottawa.ca
Source
Risk Anal. 2009 Sep;29(9):1265-80
Date
Sep-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Cognition
Humans
Risk assessment
Terrorism - psychology
Abstract
The volume of research on terrorism has increased since the events of September 11, 2001. However, efforts to develop a contextualized model incorporating cognitive, social-contextual, and affective factors as predictors of individual responses to this threat have been limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate a series of hypotheses drawn from such a model that was generated from a series of interviews with members of the Canadian public. Data of a national survey on perceived chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosives (CBRNE) terrorism threat and preparedness were analyzed. Results demonstrated that worry and behavioral responses to terrorism, such as individual preparedness, information seeking, and avoidance behaviors, were each a function of cognitive and social-contextual factors. As an affective response, worry about terrorism independently contributed to the prediction of behavioral responses above and beyond cognitive and social-contextual factors, and partially mediated the relationships of some of these factors with behavioral responses. Perceived coping efficacy emerged as the cognitive factor associated with the most favorable response to terrorism. Hence, findings highlight the importance of fostering a sense of coping efficacy to the effectiveness of strategies aimed at improving individual preparedness for terrorism.
PubMed ID
19650811 View in PubMed
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Source
Lakartidningen. 1995 Oct 11;92(41):3772
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-11-1995
Author
S. Ternov
Source
Lakartidningen. 1995 Oct 11;92(41):3772
Date
Oct-11-1995
Language
Swedish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Humans
Malpractice
Methods
Risk assessment
Safety
Sweden
Notes
Comment On: Lakartidningen. 1995 Aug 23;92(34):29797650977
PubMed ID
7564625 View in PubMed
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The observational epidemiology of changing weight: an appeal for reasons.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature200466
Source
Epidemiology. 1999 Nov;10(6):662-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1999
Author
T. Byers
Source
Epidemiology. 1999 Nov;10(6):662-4
Date
Nov-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Body Weight
Denmark - epidemiology
Humans
Mortality
Risk assessment
Notes
Comment On: Epidemiology. 1999 Nov;10(6):671-810535779
PubMed ID
10535776 View in PubMed
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The concept of risk: a comment to Reventlow and co-workers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature186825
Source
Scand J Prim Health Care. 2002 Dec;20(4):252; author reply 253
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2002
Author
Ivar Sønbø Kristiansen
Dorte Gyrd-Hansen
Jørgen Nexøe
Jesper Bo Nielsen
Source
Scand J Prim Health Care. 2002 Dec;20(4):252; author reply 253
Date
Dec-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Communication
Denmark
Humans
Physician-Patient Relations
Risk assessment
Notes
Comment On: Scand J Prim Health Care. 2001 Jun;19(2):71-511482417
PubMed ID
12564579 View in PubMed
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Measuring electromagnetic fields (EMF) around wind turbines in Canada: is there a human health concern?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257196
Source
Environ Health. 2014;13(1):9
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Lindsay C McCallum
Melissa L Whitfield Aslund
Loren D Knopper
Glenn M Ferguson
Christopher A Ollson
Author Affiliation
Intrinsik Environmental Sciences Inc, 500 - 6605 Hurontario Street, L5T 0A3, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. collson@intrinsik.com.
Source
Environ Health. 2014;13(1):9
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Electromagnetic fields
Environmental monitoring
Humans
Ontario
Risk assessment
Wind
Abstract
The past five years has seen considerable expansion of wind power generation in Ontario, Canada. Most recently worries about exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) from wind turbines, and associated electrical transmission, has been raised at public meetings and legal proceedings. These fears have not been based on any actual measurements of EMF exposure surrounding existing projects but appear to follow from worries from internet sources and misunderstanding of the science.
The study was carried out at the Kingsbridge 1 Wind Farm located near Goderich, Ontario, Canada. Magnetic field measurements were collected in the proximity of 15 Vestas 1.8 MW wind turbines, two substations, various buried and overhead collector and transmission lines, and nearby homes. Data were collected during three operational scenarios to characterize potential EMF exposure: 'high wind' (generating power), 'low wind' (drawing power from the grid, but not generating power) and 'shut off' (neither drawing, nor generating power).
Background levels of EMF (0.2 to 0.3 mG) were established by measuring magnetic fields around the wind turbines under the 'shut off' scenario. Magnetic field levels detected at the base of the turbines under both the 'high wind' and 'low wind' conditions were low (mean = 0.9 mG; n = 11) and rapidly diminished with distance, becoming indistinguishable from background within 2 m of the base. Magnetic fields measured 1 m above buried collector lines were also within background (= 0.3 mG). Beneath overhead 27.5 kV and 500 kV transmission lines, magnetic field levels of up to 16.5 and 46 mG, respectively, were recorded. These levels also diminished rapidly with distance. None of these sources appeared to influence magnetic field levels at nearby homes located as close as just over 500 m from turbines, where measurements immediately outside of the homes were = 0.4 mG.
The results suggest that there is nothing unique to wind farms with respect to EMF exposure; in fact, magnetic field levels in the vicinity of wind turbines were lower than those produced by many common household electrical devices and were well below any existing regulatory guidelines with respect to human health.
Notes
Cites: Health Phys. 1998 Apr;74(4):494-5229525427
Cites: J Acoust Soc Am. 2004 Dec;116(6):3460-7015658697
Cites: Occup Environ Med. 2007 Jul;64(7):480-617332136
Cites: PLoS One. 2013;8(10):e7658424146893
Cites: Health Psychol. 2014 Apr;33(4):360-423477573
Cites: Epilepsia. 2010 Jul;51(7):1146-5119919663
Cites: Chronic Dis Can. 2010;29 Suppl 1:69-8321199600
Cites: Environ Health. 2011;10:7821914211
Cites: Epilepsia. 2008 Jun;49(6):1095-818397297
Cites: J Acoust Soc Am. 2009 Aug;126(2):634-4319640029
PubMed ID
24529028 View in PubMed
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Environmental tobacco smoke--a major preventable cause of impaired health at work.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature189820
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2002;28 Suppl 2:3-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
2002
Author
Antti Zitting
Kirsti Husgafvel-Pursianen
Jorma Rantanen
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2002;28 Suppl 2:3-6
Date
2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Humans
Occupational Health
Risk assessment
Scandinavia
Tobacco Smoke Pollution
PubMed ID
12058800 View in PubMed
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Comparison of the ATRIA, CHADS2, and CHA2DS2-VASc stroke risk scores in predicting ischaemic stroke in a large Swedish cohort of patients with atrial fibrillation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291230
Source
Eur Heart J. 2016 Nov 07; 37(42):3203-3210
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Date
Nov-07-2016
Author
Sara Aspberg
Yuchiao Chang
Adriano Atterman
Matteo Bottai
Alan S Go
Daniel E Singer
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden sara.aspberg@ds.se.
Source
Eur Heart J. 2016 Nov 07; 37(42):3203-3210
Date
Nov-07-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Keywords
Atrial Fibrillation
Humans
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Stroke
Sweden
Abstract
Better stroke risk prediction is needed to optimize the anticoagulation decision in atrial fibrillation (AF). The ATRIA stroke risk score (ATRIA) was developed and validated in two large California community AF cohorts. We compared the performance of the ATRIA, CHADS2, and CHA2DS2-VASc scores in a national Swedish AF (SAF) cohort.
We examined all Swedish patients hospitalized, or visiting a hospital-based outpatient clinic, with a diagnosis of AF from July 2005 through December 2010. Variables were determined from comprehensive national databases. Risk scores were assessed via C-index (C) and net reclassification improvement (NRI). The cohort included 152 153 AF patients not receiving warfarin. Overall, 11 053 acute ischaemic strokes were observed with mean rate 3.2%/year, higher than the 2%/year in the California cohorts. Using entire point scores, ATRIA had a good C of 0.708 (0.704-0.713), significantly better than CHADS2 0.690 (0.685-0.695) or CHA2DS2-VASc 0.694 (0.690-0.700). Using published cut-points for low/moderate/high risk, C deteriorated but ATRIA remained superior. Net reclassification improvement favoured ATRIA 0.16 (0.14-0.17) vs. CHADS2 and 0.21 (0.20-0.23) vs. CHA2DS2-VASc. Net reclassification improvement decreased when cut-points were altered to better fit the cohort's stroke rates.
In this SAF cohort, the ATRIA score predicted ischaemic stroke risk better than CHADS2 or CHA2DS2-VASc. However, relative performance of the categorical scores varied by population stroke rates. Score cut-points may need to be optimized to better fit local population stroke rates.
PubMed ID
26941204 View in PubMed
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9378 records – page 1 of 938.