A cross-sectional and multidisciplinary study on the situation of the elderly in Denmark at the beginning of the next century was undertaken in the late 1980s. The intention was to give a picture of the future cohorts of elderly, and their expectations for old age. The study also looked into the ways in which future societal developments might affect the situation of the elderly. In order to test a number of hypotheses on the future elderly and their preferences for life when they grow older, 1200 persons in the age groups 40-44, 50-54, and 60-64 years old were interviewed. Further, a number of studies were commissioned on developments which may affect the elderly with regard to health, housing, family, work and retirement, financial conditions, leisure activities and political participation. A main conclusion is that the future elderly in most areas--be it financial conditions, health, housing education--will be in a more favourable position than their predecessors after retirement. But there will still be a minority who suffer a hard life. They are the people whose finances are weak, whose health is impaired, and who lack social contacts.
Studies have shown a negative social gradient in the incidence of early retirement. To prevent undesired early retirement, there is a need for knowledge of specific predictors in addition to social factors with a limited potential for change. The main purpose of this study was to examine musculoskeletal complaints and working conditions as predictors of early retirement among Danish female cleaners.
Using Cox regression with an adjustment for extraneous factors, we compared the risk of disability pension and retirement before the nominal retirement age (65 years) in an 11-year cohort study with registry-based follow-up of 1430 female cleaners and 579 shop assistants. In subsequent analyses of female cleaners, disability pension and voluntary early retirement were modeled according to work characteristics and upper extremity complaints.
The adjusted hazard rate (HR) for disability pension among cleaners compared to the control group was 2.27 (95% CI 1.58 to 3.28) and, for voluntary early retirement, 1.01 (95% CI 0.85 to 1.20). In the subset of cleaners, the predictors of disability pension were persistent shoulder pain HR: 1.98 (95% CI 1.47 to 2.67), elbow pain HR: 1.41 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.94) and symptoms of nerve entrapment of the hand HR: 1.58 (95% CI 1.14 to 2.20). Predictors of voluntary early retirement were persistent shoulder pain HR: 1.40 (95% CI 1.16 to 1.67) and floor mopping for more than 10 h per week HR: 1.20 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.40).
Cleaners have a twofold higher risk of disability pension compared to the control group. Risk factors for disability pension among cleaners were persistent shoulder and elbow pain together with symptoms of nerve entrapment of the hand. The findings of specific health related predictors of early retirement could be used in secondary prevention with targeted temporary reduced workload.
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The total number of early retirement pensiones has risen sharply since the end of the 1960s. The increase was greatest during the early 1970s following a reform in 1970 which extended the right to early retirement pension to older workers because of labour market considerations. This article discusses various conceivable explanations for the growth in the number of early retirement pensioners and regional variations of this phenomenon. The following explanatory factors are considered: (a) The prospects of getting (keeping) a job. (b) Work capacity. (c) The nature of the pension scheme. (d) Alternative possibilities of support. (e) Preferences concerning early retirement pensions. The discussion focuses on two explanations highlighted in the public debate in Sweden: changes in pension legislation and the role of the solidarity wages policy. An empirical analysis of variations at the provincial level reveals a definite correlation between the proportion of early retirement pensioners and various indices of unemployment and underemployment.
The world is currently facing a shortage of nurses and this is predicted to worsen as a result of the looming en masse retirement of the so-called 'baby-boom' generation. Moreover, this problem is foreseen to be far more pronounced in Western countries where the post-Second World War 'baby-boom' demographic was (and is) most prominent. Data collected by various international organizations illustrates a corresponding recent increase in nurse migration and that such mass transplantation inevitably involves the unidirectional movement of nurses from developing countries to developed Western countries. As a result, this two-part article examines this mass transplantation within the context of globalization. Part one provides compelling international data regarding the global shortage of nurses and the corresponding increase in nurse migration from 'underdeveloped' to 'Western' countries. It then situates the phenomenon in the context of global health and highlights the extent of the debate so far, such as it is.
To examine the work-related activities of full-time faculty members 55 years of age and older; to describe the retirement plans and perceptions of these faculty members; and to examine the factors, perceptions, or conditions that might influence the retirement decision.
Pharmacy faculty members aged 55 years and older in the United States and Canada were invited to participate in an online survey regarding their perceptions on issues related to their retirement planning behavior.
Four hundred eighty-eight faculty members completed the survey instrument. The typical respondent worked 50 hours per week on work-related activities, was active in teaching and service, and had published an average of 5 refereed papers during the previous 36 months. The number of articles published was positively related to the respondent's target retirement age. The average anticipated retirement age was 66.6 years, and most respondents participated in a defined benefit plan. The majority would revise their target retirement age downwards if conditions were favorable.
The primary factors that influence the pharmacy faculty retirement decision include financial status, academic productivity, and higher order needs such as the opportunity to participate in meaningful activities. These findings can be used by administrators in strategic planning related to attracting and retaining quality faculty members.
Cites: Am J Pharm Educ. 2008 Apr 15;72(2):3418496923
In this article, we raise the question as to whether retirement is lost as we currently know and understand it in Canada. With a selected review, we examine retirement research according to the scope of retirement and the new retirement, possible theoretical developments, the timing of transitions into retirement, and life as a retiree including the quality or lack of pensions. Accordingly, we propose that retirement is undergoing modifications on the basis of several trends that commenced before the 2008 economic downturn. The data would appear to lean towards the emergence of a different type of retirement, insofar as the collective Canadian vision of retirement is lost, notwithstanding the economic meltdown in global markets.