The study explored changes in the health of aging workers from 1981 to 1992.
Municipal workers [age 55 to 69 (mean 61.6) years in 1992] who filled out questionnaires in both 1981 and 1992 (N = 4534) were studied. The changes in disease prevalence and perceived health were tested with Pearson's chi-square independence test. Improvement and decline in perceived health were analyzed by logistic regression models.
In 1992, significantly more diseases were reported than in 1981; the musculoskeletal disease rate rose from 38% in 1981 to 53% in 1992 for the women and from 35% to 49% for the men and the cardiovascular disease rate rose from 15% in 1981 to 28% in 1992 for the women and from 19% to 37% for the men. The age differences diminished during the follow-up. Self-assessed health improved in all the age groups among both those still working in 1992 and those retired. The association between illnesses and perceived health changed during the follow-up, 11% of those with no diseases experiencing their health as good in 1981 and over 40% in 1992. The most important factors explaining the improvement appeared to be a low number of physical illnesses and the absence of cardiovascular and musculoskeletal disease. Nonphysical work, frequent physical exercise, and satisfaction with life situation were also significant contributors to good perceived health.
The improvement in perceived health during the follow-up may mean that older people have lower criteria for good perceived health than younger people do. The associations between self-assessed health and the presence of disease need further study.
A comprehensive system for the early rehabilitation of personnel has been developed and practised within the Finnish State administration since 1989. The rehabilitation process can be initiated as soon as the working capacity of a person or work community is threatened but is not yet seriously impaired. Rehabilitation is principally carried out on an outpatient basis alongside ordinary work. The aim of the study was to evaluate the outcomes and processes of early rehabilitation. The research data comprised several thousands of cases and consisted of a cross-sectional and a follow-up survey and a register-based follow-up. The surveys showed that during the rehabilitation period the average performance of the participants began to match that of the better-off non-participants, especially with respect to their general working capacity, mental well-being and occurrence of musculoskeletal problems. The sense of coherence rose in both groups, which can be partly attributed to positive changes in the workplace. In the group process, there also proved to be many factors contributing to achievement of the participants' rehabilitation objectives. The register-based follow-up showed that rehabilitation had a positive effect on average longer-term morbidity. In the cases of early retirement, the average retirement age of early rehabilitation participants was considerably higher than the average for the State sector as a whole. A system of outpatient early rehabilitation, where the rehabilitation programme and the development of working circumstances progress side by side, proved to give encouraging results at very moderate cost.
This study is the first part of a longitudinal investigation of the retirement process. This stage of the inquiry concerned how older persons anticipate their retirement.
Thirty-two workers were randomly selected from all workers age 63 years in a suburb of Stockholm. They participated in semistructured interviews about their work and their expectations for retirement.
The participants narratives illustrated the complex work of interpreting the past and expected meaning in one's occupational life. The narratives, which anticipated widely different future trajectories, revealed many of the challenges and dilemmas of anticipating retirement and the close association of work experience to expectations for retirement. In particular, the narratives highlighted the participants' concerns about maintaining the quality of experience in activity. The findings also demonstrate the process by which persons anticipate and make choices about life change.
People anticipate retirement through volitional narratives in which they link together past, present, and future. Understanding this volitional process of interpreting, anticipating, and making choices is important to understanding how people adapt to life changes.
Educational attainment is associated with physical activity among older people. However, little is known about its association with sedentary lifestyle in European as well as Asian nations. This study aims to examine the associations between educational attainment and daily television viewing as an indicator of a sedentary lifestyle among older working and retired people in Finland and Japan.
We used cross-sectional harmonized data from two cohorts, the Finnish Public Sector study (n?=?10,744) and the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (n?=?2493), evaluating individuals aged 65-75 years old. We defined high-duration television viewing as =4 h per day. Poisson regression was used to examine the association between educational attainment and high-duration television viewing, stratified by the current working status. Models were adjusted for age, sex, household size, smoking, alcohol, body mass index, chronic diseases, mental disorders, and physical activity.
Of the participants, 27% in Finland and 30% in Japan reported high-duration television viewing. Compared with a low education (=9 years), Finnish and Japanese retirees with a high education (=13 years) had less high-duration television viewing [prevalence ratio, PR 0.68 (95% confidence interval 0.63-0.73) and 0.66 (0.55-0.79), respectively]. The corresponding PRs for Finnish and Japanese retirees with intermediate education were also lowered [0.89 (0.83-0.95) and 0.79 (0.68-0.91), respectively]. Among older people still at work, educational attainment was associated with high-duration television viewing among the Japanese but not among the Finnish.
A similar association between educational attainment and high-duration television viewing in Finland and Japan particularly after retirement suggests a robust and consistent impact of educational attainment on a sedentary lifestyle after retirements.
The aim of this study was to examine the association between psychosocial factors (in particular ageism) at the workplace and older workers' retirement plans, while taking health and workability of the employee into account.
In the fall and winter of 2008, self-report data on work environment, health, workability and retirement plans were collected in a representative national sample (n = 3,122) of Danish employees 50 years or older. Ordinal logistic regression was used to analyse associations in a cross-sectional design. Predictor variables were standardized.
In analyses adjusted for socio-demography, socio-economy, health, workability and work performance, 4 out of 6 examined psychosocial factors (ageism, lack of recognition, lack of development possibilities, lack of predictability) were significantly associated with plans of early retirement (OR: 1.10-1.13). Stratified on gender, three psychosocial factors (ageism, lack of recognition, lack of development possibilities) remained significant for men (OR: 1.15-1.25) and none for women. In particular was the association between retirement plans and ageism highly significant in the male subgroup, but no association was found in the female subgroup.
Ageism, lack of recognition and lack of development possibilities are associated with older male workers' retirement plans in our analyses. Workability has the strongest association with retirement plans for both genders.
To investigate the complexities of the retirement process, the present article draws on a case study of Eva, a Swedish woman who "awakened" from all-absorbing relations. It considers the ways in which retirement can enable liberation from patriarchal kinship structures and embodied values of respectability. The aim is to illuminate how deep, embodied values can become conscious and explicit during precarious life situations and transitional phases. The relation between the Swedish welfare state, an I-we balance, and gender equity values are illuminated. These analytical dimensions support the analysis by providing insights into the ways in which individuals embody and use cultural and social structures when they aim to manage unpredictability and to create change toward self-actualization.
This analysis investigates to what extent the self-enhancement values in the Schwartz taxonomy-achievement, power, and hedonism-can predict retirement behavior. Self-enhancement values were measured using the Norwegian Life Course, Generations and Gender Study beginning in 2007. Register data were merged with the survey data to identify those collecting a pension by the end of 2010; these persons were defined as being retired. Statistical analysis was performed using discrete time proportional odds (logistic regression) duration models for each birthday. The results show that two self-enhancement values, achievement and hedonism, discourage disability retirement but do not affect nondisability retirement. These results are largely consistent across statistical models controlling or not controlling for other known predictors of retirement behavior, including education and income, occupational group (class), and health. The hedonism effect is partially associated with the fact that individuals holding hedonistic values are in good health.
To investigate whether longitudinal changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among breast cancer patients vary by prediagnosis occupational status or postdiagnosis changes in working time.
We identified 1573 patients in the Breast Cancer Quality Register of Central Sweden and asked them to participate in a longitudinal questionnaire study. A total of n?=?841 women completed three questionnaires within a mean time of 4, 16, and 38?months postdiagnosis. Generalized estimating equation models were used to examine changes in European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire and the Breast Cancer-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire subscales stratified by prediagnosis occupational status and postdiagnosis changes in working time.
Over time, the proportion of employed women reporting good functioning increased more, and the proportion reporting a high level of symptoms decreased more compared with women on sick leave/disability pension and retirement pensioners (p?
Changes in health functioning over different retirement transitions are poorly understood. This study aimed to examine associations between transition into statutory, disability and part-time retirement, and changes in health functioning.
Survey data were collected among ageing employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, at three phases: (i) (2000-02), (ii) (2007) and (iii) (2012). Physical and mental health functioning were measured using the Short-Form 36 questionnaire at each phase. Retirees between phases 1 and 3 were identified from the national registers of the Finnish Centre for Pensions: full-time statutory retirement (n = 1464), part-time retirement (n = 404), and disability retirement (n = 462). Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the associations.
Disability retirees had poorer pre- and post-retirement health functioning compared to statutory and part-time retirees. Statutory and part-time retirement were associated with no or only small changes in physical health functioning during retirement transition (ß 0.1, 95% CI -0.3 to 0.5 and -1.0, -1.8 to -0.1, respectively), whereas a clear decline in functioning was observed among disability retirees (-4.3, -5.4 to -3.2). Mental health functioning improved during the retirement transition among statutory and part-time retirees (1.9, 1.4-2.4 and 2.0, 1.0-3.0, respectively), whereas no change was observed for disability retirees.
Transition to disability retirement led to a decrease in physical health functioning, and statutory retirement to a slight improvement in mental health functioning. Evidence on changes in physical and mental health functioning during retirement transition process may provide useful information for interventions to promote healthy ageing.